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爭奪水權、尋求證據-清至民國時期關中水利文獻的傳承與編造

Fighting for Water Rights and Searching for Evidence: The Transmission and Compilation of Water Conservancy Documents in the Guanzhong Region from the Qing to the Republican Periods

Abstracts


本文根據作者在關中地區所收集的民間水利文獻,參照明清以來地方志的系統記載,探討清代至民國時期當地水利文獻是如何傳承,怎樣被生產、製造出來的。在對史料進行發掘闡釋的基礎上,冀以揭示環境變遷、資源爭奪背景下,當地人的若干心態與行為方式。文章以清河沿岸各條渠道為中心,查核對照各類文獻,發現明清以來地方志記載的同一渠道名稱並不統一,大多只是代號而已;而在民間文獻中,卻存在着對若干渠道的刻意命名並賦予其特定含義,及伺機向地方志等文獻中滲透的現象。比較民國年間劉屏山編輯的《清峪河各渠記事簿》底稿原件與筆者發現的劉氏此前所纂初稿以及其他地方文獻,我們在洞悉水利文獻傳承的同時,又得以窺探當地人對關鍵文獻的編造乃至竄改。清代以來當地民間文獻的此類舉措,其最大用意在於為樹立本渠道的灌溉地位、爭奪自身的用水權益,製造輿論或尋求「證據」。部份文獻對某些水利的「如實」記載,表現了主觀表達中的相對客觀性;而其他文獻的若干刻意解釋、對此前文獻的蓄意編造與竄改,曲折而眞實地反映了文獻作者的心態與目的。

Keywords

明清 民國 陜西關中 水利文獻 傳承 編造

Parallel abstracts


By comparing local water conservancy documents from the Guanzhong region (Shaanxi and Henan) with systematic records in local gazetteers from Ming and Qing, this essay examines the compilation and transmission of such documents during the Qing and Republican periods. It illustrates some characteristics of the mentality and behavior of the populace in response to environmental change and the struggle for resources. Careful scrutiny of sources on the channels of the Qinghe river in Guanzhong illustrates that the names of specific channels in local gazetteers from Ming and Qing were anything but uniform, and many names were no more than a form of short-hand or code. On the other hand, in unofficial documents the same channels are identified with names that are rich in implicit meanings. Some of these terms and meanings were "infiltrated" into local gazetteers. By comparing successive drafts of the "Register of Channels of the Qingyu River" compiled by Liu Pingshan in the Republican period as well as other local documents, we can not only understand how water conservancy documents were transmitted, but also learn how local people compiled and even falsified key documents. From the Qing onwards, this had been done chiefly to assert claims to water from these channels, to mold public opinion, or to seek "evidence" for some type of claim. The "factual" account of some water conservancy facilities in the documents shows a degree of objectivity in representation. But the elaboration, transmission and even falsification of previously compiled documents also reveals the mentality and purposes of their authors.

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