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衍化與變異-南臺灣內埔客莊的無主骨骸奉祀風俗初探

Customs Related to the Worship of Unknown Human Remains in Hakka Villages in Neipu, Southern Taiwan

Abstracts


以往學界對於無祀信仰研究頗豐,大多聚焦於無形孤魂的論述,對於有形的無主骨骸安置較少着墨,基於形魄一體的傳統靈魂觀,筆者思以南臺灣的屏東內埔客莊加以探討,立基於現有文獻基礎,佐以祭祀時機的參與觀察、口述訪談等田野資料,呈顯無主骨骸奉祀風俗的衍化與變異內埔客家人對於無主骨骸的奉祀態樣,概可區分兩大類型:其屬於多家多姓不特定人群共同祭祀的「陰神」,亦有因靈驗事蹟而轉化神格者;其二屬於一家一姓特定人群奉祀的「古老大人」,其中又有附葬於祖墳而升格為「類似祖先」者。內埔客莊無主骨骸奉祀風俗,呈顯泛靈崇拜的客家人,面對敬畏的無祀之「厲」,普遍以升格化其地位為「非鬼」的多面性。

Parallel abstracts


The extensive scholarly literature on hungry or wandering ghosts, that is, the spirits of deceased humans who do not receive sacrifice from their descendants, has mostly focussed on the souls of the ghosts. Less attention has been paid to their physical remains. Using existing literature and ethnographic field observation including interviews and participation in rituals, this paper explores changes in the customs related to the worship of unclaimed physical remains in the Hakka villages of Neipu Pingtung county, southern Taiwan There are two broad categories of remains that are worshipped in Pingtung county, southern Taiwan There are two broad categories of remains that are worshipped in these villages: dark spirits(yinshen) and gentlemen-of old(gulao aren). The former are worshipped by people from different families and with different surnames. Dark spirits who manifest their powers may become deified as gods. Gentlemen-of-old are worshipped only by a single family or surname. Some remains are buried in ancestral graves and are considered "ancestor-like". The evolution and variation in the forms of worship toward ownerless remains in Neipu show how the Hakka people of Taiwan transform some beings from demonic into non-demonic spirits.

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