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雙面刃-清代施氏旗人家族與施氏漢人宗族研究

A Double-edged Sword: The History of the Shi Banner Family and the Shi Lineage during the Qing Period

Abstracts


「新清史」透過非漢材料並強調滿洲元素,在全球史與帝國史的脈絡下理解大清帝國。「歷史人類學」則藉由田野調查與民間文獻,從社會,宗教等層面來認識國家與地方的關係。兩個「學派」對晚期中華帝國的研究影響甚巨,但因為缺少合適的案例作為橋樑,致使對話有限。本文以施琅家族為案例,從帝國史的角度切入,配合新發現的滿,漢文爵位世襲冊等官方譜冊與在臺灣,泉州等地的田野調查以及施家族譜等民間文獻,指出清代的施氏氏族是八旗制度與地方宗族結合下誕生的產物。明中葉,施氏宗族因應明代鹽制改革以及倭寇侵擾對地方社會的影響逐漸強化其宗族。明清鼎革與禁海令的實施破壞了舊有的社會結構,但施琅在康熙四年(1665)禁海令未解除前就已返回原鄉重建施氏宗祠。康熙七年(1668)施琅與家人被編入漢軍鑲黃旗,施氏旗人家族因此扮演着帝國中間人的角色:施氏旗人家族一方面掌控福建水師提督長達33年,另一方面在清帝國的特許下,將旗人派回泉州管理宗族。清帝國為了掌握這個中間人,不僅容忍施家違法犯紀之事,且不允許施家離開八旗。乾隆朝以降,隨着施家旗人家族長期待在八旗制度底下,其認同改變、涉入不法、對福建水師的壟斷和影響力亦不復再,其中間人地位開始產生動搖。與此同時,泉州施氏宗族經濟能力逐漸提升,得以擺脫旗人管轄,透過修繕宗祠強調泉州原鄉出身者的低階功名,而抹去旗人親屬的痕跡。兩個系出同源卻分居南北,被制度隔離的家族,宗族終究各自發展,也象徵着帝國中間人的角色不再。簡言之,清帝國的八旗制度與地方宗族並非沒有交集,反而在泉州地區產生了旗人、漢人、地方社會之間互動緊密頻繁的模式。帝國中間人的角色令旗人家族、泉州宗族各自興盛發展,但也如同雙面刃一般讓二者距離越來越遠。

Parallel abstracts


The New Qing History school is distinguished by the use of non- Chinese language materials and emphasis on Manchu elements to examine the Qing Empire in the context of global history. The South China Studies or Historical Anthropology school explores the relationship between state and society from social and religious perspectives, through fieldwork and the use of materials produced in local society. Though the two schools have contributed tremendously to the history of late imperial China, they have rarely been in dialogue with one another due to the lack of appropriate case studies. By combining newly discovered Manchu and Chinese materials with field work in Quanzhou and Taiwan, this article seeks to bridge the gap between two schools within the context of imperial history. The case of Shi Lang and the Shi lineage illustrates the interaction between the Eight Banners system and lineage institutions during the Qing period. The Shi lineage was first formally established in the mid-Ming in the context of the wokou (Japanese piracy) crisis and reforms to the system of tax registration. During the Ming-Qing transition, Shi Lang rebuilt his lineage's ancestral hall in its original location even before the coastal evacuation order was repealed, indicating his commitment to the lineage organization. At roughly the same time, Shi Lang and his immediate family were also enrolled into the Eight Banners system. The Shi ner family, a sub-group of the larger lineage, thus came to play a vital intermediary role between imperial authority and local society. It controlled the Fujianese navy and was authorized by the Qing Empire to manage the larger Shi lineage in Quanzhou. The Qing Empire tolerated its intermediary's illegal behavior while forbidding them from leaving the Eight Banners system. After the eighteenth-century, the Shi banner family gradually lost its monopoly over the Fujian navy and its ethnic identity was also transformed. Its role as an intermediary declined. As its economic power increased, the Shi lineage in Fujian began to stress the contributions of its members rather than their kinship with high-ranking officials in Beijing. Thus Eight Banners system interacted with local lineages in Quanzhou to create an imperial intermediary. But this was a double-edged sword that eventually created a separation between the Shi banner family and the larger Shi lineage.

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