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近代溫州的龍舟競渡與地方自治傳統

Dragon Boat Racing and Local Self-governance Tradition in Modern Wenzhou

Abstracts


本文針對晚清至民國時期浙江省溫州地區的龍舟競渡進行個案研究。該地區因龍舟競渡而引發的「村落械門」一直是溫州地方,特別是溫瑞塘河平原最重要的歷史問題。除了官方以及地方菁英對此「社區儀式傳統」之禁弛問題的討論外,本文將運用近年來在溫州市瑞安縣溫瑞塘河與溫瑞平河流域所進行的田野調查,結合民間歷史文獻,討論以下三個問題:(1)龍舟作為村民的生命線,是他們日常政治的重要組成。(2)划龍舟是一個區劃地方政治勢力與現代地方自治傳統的宗教儀式。(3)溫州的地方神在這個地方自治的儀式傳統中所扮演的角色。透過這三個問題的澄清,本文嘗試運用民間的觀點重新理解晚清到民國溫州地方政治格局的轉型過程,從而重新思索中國地方歷史的發展歷程。

Parallel abstracts


This paper examines the history of Wenzhou dragon boat racing between the late Qing and early Republican era. Frequently triggered by boat racing during the dragon boat festival every year, the armed fights among villagers, especially in Rui'an and Pingyang counties, became one of the most severe local problems since the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). Previous scholarship has been focusing on local officials' and literati's discussions on the enforcement of local custom regulations. Integrating materials from field work and local historical archives, this paper explores the following three aspects: first, this paper argues that the annual dragon boat racing is actually a key part of politics in villagers' daily life, just like their lifeline. Secondly, the dragon boat racing is a local religious ritual which not only divides local political powers but also represents the tradition of local self- governance. Thirdly, this paper identifies the correlation between Wenzhou local deities and dragon boat racing during the Qing and early Republican era. By investigating these three aspects, this paper illustrates the significance of applying local perspective to understand modern Chinese history.

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