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高泉與溫泉:從高泉性潡看晚明清初渡日華僧的異文化接觸

Gaoquan Xingdun: Exploring Cultural Contacts Between Chinese and Japanese Monks During the End of the Ming Dynasty and Beginning of the Qing Dynasty

Abstracts


明清之際東渡日本的僧人的詩文當中,關於溫泉、櫻花、藤花、富士山等日本風土人情的記錄不知凡幾。高泉東渡日本之後,極力想要融入日本文化,其精神面貌具見於《高泉全集》。在已然熟悉的舊日師友交遊之外,高泉對於日本文化始終維持高度的關心,不論是溫泉藥師的無邊法力,或是花道名家的巧心妙手,乃至於前代禪林僧寶的歷史事蹟,都成為高泉日本經驗動人的成分。明末清初東渡日本的僧人與明清中國政局的變化息息相關,隱元東渡日本之船舶即為鄭氏政權所提供,此為近世閩、臺海洋文化不可忘卻的重要成分。明清時期東渡日本的僧人在日本航海相關史料,若《通航一覽》或《華夷變態》等檔案皆有記錄,故研究此段時期的歷史文化,必須對域外文獻有所著意。近年來,東渡日本的僧人如隱元隆琦、東皋心越,學界已經高度關注,相關的研究頗有車載斗量之勢。關於渡日華僧的中介角色,學界也多有闡發,《高泉全集》的整理出版,提供世人重新認識高泉性潡的重要契機,同時也再次提醒我們:佛教在東亞文化交流過程所扮演的重要角色。

Parallel abstracts


During the Ming and Qing dynasties, many records were written by monks travelling to Japan about various locations and experiences, such as hot springs, cherry blossoms, rattan flowers, mount Fuji, etc. Having travelled to Japan, the monk Gaoquan Xingdun (東皋心越) made great efforts to assimilate into Japanese society, and the records of his life in Japan can be found in the Gaoquan Complete Works (高泉全集). Gaoquan always held Japanese culture in high regard: the mysterious powers of the hot springs' physician (溫泉藥師), the impressive craftsmanship of famous Ikebana artists, or the historical records of eminent Zen monks from the past all became important facets of Gaoquan's travels in Japan. The trips of Chinese monks to Japan at the end of the Ming dynasty were closely related to the political shifts occurring during the change of dynasties. Maritime records of Chinese monks travelling to Japan have been preserved in documents such as the Tonghangyikan (通航一覽) or the Huayibiantai (華夷變態). For this reason, the study of this period should take into consideration such local records. In recent years, the travels to Japan of monks such as Yinyuan Longqi (隱元隆琦) or Donggao Xinyue (東皋心越) have received much attention from the academic community, and an impressive amount of research has been produced on the subject. Scholars have pointed out the important role as intermediaries of Chinese monks travelling to Japan, and the publication of the Gaoquan Complete Works has allowed readers to rediscover Gaoquan's important contributions, and has reminded us of the important role played by Buddhism in promoting cross-cultural exchanges in East-Asia.

References


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