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學校建築生命歷程—教育與建築的持續對話

Life course of school buildings: Sustaining dialogue between education and architecture

Advisor : 畢恆達
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Abstracts


本文探討學校建築與教育之交互關係,預設在民主參與的過程下有助於二者之緊密連結,共同朝向多元形式發展。學校教育與建築為學校施行教育之二項重要元素。以往不論在教育現場或研究,或未考量其與建築關係,或視二者為相互影響之獨立因素。但這二者的關係卻有超越前述靜態相關的可能,即由學校成員之參與促成二者的動態互助。 本文即藉由觀察與訪談,以「使用者參與」規劃設計之三類不同組合的學校做為案例,包括具有新學校系統與新建築之學校、新學校系統與原有建築之學校、以及原有學校系統與新建築之學校。探討在使用者參與空間營造的過程中,如何能促使學校教育與建築產生正向發展的動態持續循環,同時也因這過程發揮學校之為公共空間的本質。 研究指出,學校建築與教育的關係應是持續對話的整體發展。對於教育而言,不論教育行政系統、政策及規範、教育計畫、教育施為及接收者,皆須同步朝向多元開放的觀點發展,同時誘發可回應教育的實質空間。此即包括1.教育優先,教育觀點的掌握先於學校建築的興建。在學校建築營造的過程中,需確認學校之教育理念,目標、內容、方式、學校成員相互間的關係,以回應教育需要。但不僅如此,學校建築更可有助於教育計畫的實踐,甚至促進教育的多元發展;2.開放的學校氛圍,具有回饋機制的開放學校系統促成校務彈性運作,鼓勵學校成員關心學校事務,也促成學校教育與建築密切配合。這是教育內涵的一部份,也是民主學習的歷程。 而學校建築,不管形式如何,皆是教育的表現,其生命歷程可說是隨著教育實踐而變動的實質體現。在學校建築整備營造的過程中,必先瞭解學校建築在哪些情境下回應教育需要,而能1.顧及人的使用,針對學校裡不同使用者的需要,相互間的互動模式,而形成空間劇本,並依此而有搭配之空間營造過程;2.學校教育與建築不協調的情境,卻是改變的機會。當學校建築比教育更多元豐富有彈性時,即挑戰學校的教育觀點。而教育優先的概念在遇到不合用的學校建築時,有機會藉由空間整備的歷程,生產新的教育計畫,並回饋至原有的教育觀點;3.新形式學校建築挑戰行之有年的教育觀點,使得學校需在創意與傳統間取得平衡。對於願意創新的學校成員而言,這些新空間可帶來對於教育的新省思。又若新空間來自於學校成員對於教育的想像,則需傳承,同時也藉此形塑學校文化。這些過程皆須行政單位對於學校建築形式的開放態度,以及空間使用模式的彈性;4.學校建築空間營造的權力應交由使用者負責。藉由使用者對於空間的自主態度,讓學校建築之營造成為學校生活的一部份。 延伸而言,學校需成為有利於參與的公共空間。學校成員被平等看待且能自主對於學校事務發表意見,形塑共同治校的精神。學校建築營造的過程實踐學校之為公共空間,並培力參與者對於空間、校務的自主性。重點為,1.改變僵化封閉之學校系統。藉由培力挑戰學校僵化運作模式,學校成員體認相互間的差異,以合作取代競爭,最終能相互成就;2.促成使用者參與空間營造的機制為,上位部門對於參與方式的支持、學校形塑成員對於公共事務討論與共同治理的氛圍,並有一群學校成員與空間專業者願意投入參與的過程;3.學校建築之營造有利於不同成員參與的實踐。首先以上位者作為模範,謹慎行使階級權力,將空間議題作為發展學校文化的觸媒,並展現於教育計畫,用以培力其他成員。同時,模糊、開放、可改變的環境,以及各類交流空間皆有助於提供學校成員正式與非正式對話的機會。 最後,使用者參與促成教育與學校建築的重新定義。使用者參與使得學校成員重新檢視目前的學校教育以建立對於未來教育的想像,且需經由討論整合各方意見。學校建築也在對話中以各種形式出現,成為反應學校教育的歷程。教育為概念與組織,建築則為實質表現及實踐場域,同時也是促成概念與組織產生質變的誘因。最終,教育即學校建築,學校建築即教育。

Parallel abstracts


This paper discusses the transaction between school education and buildings. In this paper, school education regards administrative system, educational policies and regulations, and educational practices. School buildings regard both physical facilities and their building processes. It was presupposed that a participatory design process would facilitate the coordination between the two parties. Three types of schools which have applied participatory design process were studied: a new school system running at new school buildings, an old school system at new school buildings, a new school system at old school buildings. Through field observations and interviews, this paper explored how participatory design process facilitated sustaining dialogue between education and architecture, and how the process highlighted the public feature of schools. The findings indicate, 1. Educational concepts should be developed prior to the school building process which should fulfill the school needs and also facilitate the educational practices; 2. An open school system with a feedback mechanism will create an open milieu. This democratic practice encourages school members to engage in school affairs and also facilitate the coordination between school education and buildings. On the other hand, school buildings are representations of education. And their life course should follow educational practice. That is, school buildings should be responsive to education. 1. People make places. Various users request for different needs and they use space with different ways. The diverse people-environment interacting patterns compose space scenarios, which are the basis of design concepts. 2. The incompatibility between school education and buildings could be a turning point of changes. When school buildings are more progressive, it challenges present educational concepts. On the contrary, when educational concept is more progressive, the adjustment to the buildings may provide settings for innovative educational projects. 3. A more open system of a school allows users transact with new architectural forms in a more innovative way. If these forms were developed by school members, they should be conveyed to new members, which will become an element of school culture. 4. The users should be responsible for the architectural building processes. On the whole, school should be public space where school members are equally regarded. The architectural building process may embody school as public space and empower users to the space and school affairs. 1. The participatory process challenges the hierarchical school system. During the process, the diversity bodies of the school should cooperate to achieve collective goals. 2. The supports from central government and democratic milieu of the school are the key mechanism encouraging users to be involved in school building process. 3. The building process of school architecture should include all school members. Some vague, open and changeable spaces provide settings for formal and informal dialogue among school members. At last, users’ participation will re-define the relationship between school education and buildings. The process let school members re-inspect their current educational concept and establish future images; while school buildings response to the needs, both physically and pedagogically. Eventually, education is school building, and school building is education.

References


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蔡碧夆(2007)。升學氛圍下國中學生的課程觀:一個班級的民族誌研究〔碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=U0021-2910200810563524
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