The general objective of this study is to measure the relative magnitude of effect of the key economic factors affecting West African rice producers’ planting decisions. Factors that are responsive to yield and trade liberalization effect on consumers and producer decisions are identified and estimated by using an econometric model of the demand and supply to rice in West Africa. The results suggest that area planted to rice in West Africa is more responsive to changes in area planted in previous years than to changes in producers’ prices of rice. It is also found that many West African countries have the potential to increase productivity through increasing yield per hectare and that low import price of rice continue to underpin rice import at the expense of domestic production. An important implication of the study is that policies to reduce yield gap could do more to enhance the production of rice in West Africa, which will also ensure food security in West African countries in the long run.