Have library access?
IP:3.92.91.54
  • Theses

金門觀光發展的越界凝視

Kinmen Tourism Development and Cross Border Gaze

Advisor : 夏鑄九

Abstracts


臺灣大學建築與城鄉研究所博士論文 中華民國九十七年一月 金門觀光發展的越界凝視 張梨慧 摘要 過去的15 年期間,全球政治地理環境發生重大變化,許多政治敏感地區相繼開放,並允許旅客可以自由出入,跨界旅遊因此在全世界發生與蔓延。國界不再是阻礙世界觀光發展的要件,本地和跨越邊界地區的觀光實質利益日趨重要。「金門」曾是冷戰時期民主國家反共的最前線,被戒嚴了36 年的戰島,在兩岸關係和緩後,驟然變身為兩岸交流的模範縣,這一連串的邊界開放,對一個扮演近半世紀前線防禦功能的島嶼是一重大變革,不只在社會、經濟上,更是表現在認知與思想上。金門是一個具備高度軍事建設的軍事要塞島嶼,其土地利用亦以軍事用途為主,因為軍事、政治與經濟等因素在不同時期的介入,導致功能面的改變。金門自1949 年起,在扮演前線邊境角色過程中,與中國大陸的互動關係,本研究將其歸納為四個階段:1)正面衝突的軍事活動前線(1949-1958)階段;2)冷戰對峙的統戰活動(1959-1979)階段;3)關係和緩地下非正式經濟的開始(1980-2000)階段;4)合法交流的邊界滲透(2001 至今)階段。因此,其邊界空間的演化因為前述與大陸互動關係的改變而經歷了三種形式:第一階段邊界阻礙的戰地空間(1949-1992 年),當金門是個戒嚴戰島時,嚴禁人員進出,整個島嶼就是一個邊界阻礙的空間;第二階段是邊界作為旅遊目的地的觀光空間(1992 年以後),金門解除戒嚴,開放島嶼面對台灣的東邊邊界,讓台灣旅客上島觀光後,金門這個邊界島嶼成為台灣旅客的旅遊目的地;第三階段是改變邊界成為觀光島嶼的滲透空間(2001 年以後),開放小三通,金門面對大陸的西邊界也開放,從嚴禁的水域防線成為遊客可滲透的邊界。今日的金門,成為一個不同屬性遊客可進行不同程度滲透的旅遊目的地。金門除了是台客的旅遊目的地外,也是福建陸客的旅遊目的地,及台商過境區的邊界,金門旅客也可以進入廈門並到大陸各地。本研究以台灣的前線島嶼「金門」為案例,以全球化政治經濟及衝突性邊界島嶼的觀點,研究1949年後金門的觀光發展與觀光和附近政治邊界之間的數種關係與象徵意義。 本研究主要成果如後:觀光和國際邊界共享一連串的關係,以金門這個特定的案例來看國際邊界與觀光的關係,最首要的關係是邊界是觀光吸引力或是旅遊目的地:當邊界自身創造出觀光的魅力時,邊界是觀光吸引力。當邊界兩邊的環境與條件有一定的對比時,邊界社區會成為旅遊的目的地,除了一般的觀光客外,會有一些不過夜的一日遊旅客產生,不論是什麼形式的遊客,他們對邊疆社區的旅遊業有很大的貢獻。第二個明顯的關係是邊界是旅遊的障礙:很顯然的,重型防禦工事和嚴峻的入出規定,讓很多人怯步無法越界,最常見的障礙包含口岸手續、文化差異,和運用政權阻止許多人訪問邊界的另一邊。第三個關係是邊界景觀隨著觀光發展而改變:當邊界是主要吸引力所在時,邊界跨越點是旅遊業發展之磁石,因而產生顯然不同的文化/觀光景觀。國際邊界的空間是由政治制度與旅遊業作用所形成之文化景觀。政治景觀是反應某一地方之政治價值、意識形態、及法律制度之罕見的政治事實或可辨識的政治體制來加以描繪;旅遊業景觀乃是某一地方之可見的結構,表達由其住民與訪客兩者所抱有之感情愛慕的方式,以及其被設想、產生、競爭及實施的方法。第四個關係是觀光促進邊界區域性的文化再認同:旅遊對文化的重要性以及不同文化如何互換交流,與國家本質的變化有關。從前,國家建立在均勻規劃的國家地域基礎上,由法律或權威在領土邊界掌權,並尋找忠誠。現在,邊界具有滲透性,文化生活透過全球範圍?堛漕倩擙?行和想像旅行相互交換。離散的金廈人以前因廣大的海洋與政治屏障而分離,現在借助現代交通工具、溝通技術、勞動遷移的不斷來往,越來越使他們容易聯繫接近,因此更普遍的民族感應旅遊在邊疆地區流行。第五個關係是觀光使邊界兩邊的經濟有趨於一致的傾向:邊疆地區的界限與過濾效用,產生異乎尋常的經濟契機及社會情況。尤其大量朝向全球化運動之近來地理政治上的改變,已容許社會間更高水準的互動,並提供在鄰近地區居民追求各樣活動的自由。因此,鄰接國際性邊界之社區,變得在經濟上更加整合至跨邊界地區經濟正在發展的地步,其中貿易與旅遊業的存在幾乎不受邊界阻撓。最後的關係是觀光帶動邊界地區的地方變革:邊疆地區通常是仰賴來自核心的支持而存活,因此當邊界是一個可滲透的區域時,觀光通常成為邊疆地區的經濟政策。而觀光是最全球化的產業,在全球旅遊業體系中有多種工作形式,包括運輸、熱情款待、旅遊諮詢與設計、全球旅遊景點的形象塑造、全球標誌性形象的塑造,本土標誌的形象透過印刷品、電視、新聞、網路來傳播,還包括支持或反對旅遊設施建設或開發抗議活動的政治組織,這些工作形式變革了地方。 關鍵字:金門、觀光、凝視、政治邊界、跨邊界旅遊

Keywords

金門 觀光 凝視 政治邊界 跨邊界旅遊

Parallel abstracts


Kinmen Tourism Development and Cross Border Gaze Chang, Li-Hui Doctoral dissertation of Graduate Institute of Building and Planning, National Taiwan University Abstract In the past fifteen years, major changes have taken place in the world’s political geography. Many politically sensitive regions have been opened, and tourists are allowed to enter without restrictions. Cross-border traveling therefore blooms and sprawls the world. Boundaries no longer are obstacles of tourism development in the world, and profits gained from the tourism of domestic and cross-border regions are apt to be more important these days. Of interest under the easing of travel is the position of the frontier island of Taiwan, Kinmen, which has become an experimental region for policies between Taiwan and China. Kinmen, formerly known as Quemoy, was a disputed island and the site of the 1958 823 Artillery War (also known as the Kinmen Artillery War). Because of its military importance as a heavily fortified area, Kinmen was closed for a period of nearly 36 years when neither residents nor trade could freely circulate to or from other zones. Following the commencement of cross-strait relations in 2001 under the ‘mini three links policy’ Kinmen has become an experimental region for Taiwan’s policies toward China. Consequently Kinmen has become a point of access to China for Taiwanese traveling to the mainland for trade and/or tourism. As seen in the accompanying maps, for many this is a more direct route than via Hong Kong or possibly Macau, thereby potentially saving time and expense. The process was not immediate. First there was permission for Taiwan residents to tour Kinmen, second, those resident in Kinmen were allowed to trade or tour in China, and third, Taiwanese businessmen trading with China could then do so by way of Kinmen if possessing suitable documentation and last, residents in Fujian received permission to visit Kinmen. Thus a tourism circuit of Taiwan, Kinmen and Xiamen has taken shape. From the battlefield to attraction site, Kinmen has gone through a major transformation, not merely socially or economically but in terms of thought, perceptions and attitudes. This study examines the relationship of conflict, global movements and symbolic meaning in the establishment of Kinmen as a tourist destination. Borders have their unique significance of various kinds, and they are a colliding stronghold of two political entities, where their economies tend to be consistent, cultural fusions are matched, among others. Borders give way to globalization, especially in the case of tourism, where unique significance comes into play. Thus, the meeting of Kinmen’s and Xiamen’s borders has made their relationships so unique and interesting. There are six major relations between tourism and cross-border in the Kinmen region. First, from battles space to tourism space. Second, cross border becomes the major attraction. Third, borders are obstacles to transit. Forth, undergoing regional cultural re-identity. Fifth, development of the “tour circle of Taiwan, Kinmen and Xiamen” as the economical strategy. Finally, tourism development as the force of local reformation. Keywords: Kinmen, Tourism, Gaze, Political Boundaries, Cross-Border Traveling ©2008

Parallel keywords

Kinmen Tourism Gaze Political Boundaries Cross-Border Travelling

References


石計生 (2005)。《金門溫羅汀:徬徨都市之心的安放》。歷史月刊電子報
陳麗瑛 (1997)。《兩岸直航對三地可能的經濟衝擊》。經濟前瞻雙月刊,第52期, P34-39。
Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1990)。 Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques, 徐宗國譯(1997) 質性研究概論。台北:巨流。
Aglietta, M. (1987). A theory of capitalist regulation: The US experience. London: Verso.
Airy, D. and Shackley, M. (1997). Tourism development in Uzbekistan. Tourism Management, 18: 199-208.

Cited by


蔡孟軒(2011)。新加坡觀光的社會建構-以牛車水為例〔碩士論文,淡江大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6846/TKU.2011.00612
郭泉仁(2011)。金門觀光發展趨勢之研究:從全球化觀點探討〔碩士論文,元智大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6838/YZU.2011.00080
盧怡文(2017)。想像的「貢糖」體:金門邊界島嶼的多重想像與治理矛盾〔碩士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU201701545
蔡孟軒(2016)。觀光凝視下族群符號的呈現-以台灣中和華新街為例〔碩士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU201600569
曹建宇(2016)。危機事件衝擊下觀光地景脆弱性與回復力之研究:阿里山鄉山美村之個案〔博士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU201600194

Read-around