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Construct Validity of the 2×2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire for Sports


依據Nicholls (1989)的理論,成就目標主要是以能力定義而區分成精熟/工作和表現/自我等兩種目標。不過,當代成就目標理論(Elliot, 1999)強調只要將能力趨避價結合能力定義時,或許就能解釋過去在成就目標文獻上所出現不一致的研究結果。2×2運動成就目標量表(Conroy, Elliot, & Hofer, 2003)就是被用來測量選手在運動成就情境中的精熟-趨近、精熟-逃避、表現-趨近和表現-逃避等目標傾向。因此,本研究目的在利用驗證性因素分析以驗證2×2運動成就目標量表的因素效度以及2×2運動成就目標與害怕失敗的關係。研究對象為402名來自國內四所大專院校代表隊的選手,平均年齡為20.11歲,皆自願填寫2×2運動成就目標量表和簡式表現失敗評鑑量表。經由驗證性因素分析的適合度指標,顯示2×2運動成就目標量表的測量模式大致上符合實徵資料(χ^2(48)=228.64;CFI=94;NFI=92;RMSEA=10);此外,精熟-逃避目標、表現-逃避目標和表現-趨近目標皆與害怕失敗呈明顯的正相關,其中,又以精熟-逃避目標的相關程度最強。依據結果,本研究認為2×2運動成就目標量表具有可接受的因素效度且適用於大專選手;此外,害怕表現失敗的選手較容易採用精熟-逃避目標、表現-逃避目標和表現-趨近目標。

Parallel abstracts

Based on Nicholls' theory (1989), the achievement goals could be distinguished into the mastery/task goal and the performance/ego goal by competence. However, the contemporary achievement goal theory (Elliot, 1999) which emphasizes inconsistent results in achievement goal research might be explained when the approach vs. avoidance nature of competence is considered in conjunction with definition dimensions of competence. The 2×2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire for Sport (2×2 AGQ-S) (Conroy, Elliot, & Hofer, 2003) was used to measure athletes' goal disposition to mastery-approach (MAp), mastery-avoidance (MAv), performance-approach (PAp), and performance-avoidance (PAp). Hence, this study examined the factor validity of 2×2 AGQ-S via confirmatory factor analyses and the relationship between 2×2 achievement goals and fear of failure. Four hundred and two college athletes from four college teams with the average age at 20.11 participated in this study. All the participants were asked to complete a series of questionnaires, which measured 2×2 AGQ-S and the short form Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory. The results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated the measures of the overall fit of 2×2 AGQ-S were acceptable (χ^2 (48)=228.64; CFI=.94; NFI=.92; RMSEA=.10). In addition, MAv, PAp and PAp were positively related to fear of failure. The relationship between MAv and fear of failure was the strongest. In conclusion, it was suggested that 2×2 AGQ-S was acceptably valid and could be provided to assess college athletes' MAp, MAv, PAp and PAp in sports. Besides, the more fear of failure an athlete has, the more MAv, PAp and PAp he will get.


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