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Improving Problem-Finding Ability from Contradictory Problematic Situation of Technical & Vocational High School Students

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技術與職業教育培育出的人才必須有專精的知識,熟練的技術,以及正確的工作態度,將來進入工作職場後,才能運用所學,勝任愉快。在技術與職業教學方面,學習者必將相關學科知識與熟練的技術相結合,面臨問題時才能迅速有效的解決。但是如果遇到故障時沒有發現問題的癥結所在,往往熟練的技能也無用武之地。因此了解學習者面臨問題時能不能快速而且正確的發現問題,進而使用熟練的技術去解決問題,是一個值得深思的課題。 傳統技能教學或是評量方式對於學習者發現問題與解決問題的能力不盡完美,因為技能教學偏重於技能熟練程度,教師的示範大多是正常的程序或步驟,而檢驗教學成果的測驗又因為偏重文字敘述的測驗方式,使得問題情境侷限在很小的範圍,學習者很容易看出問題之所在,無法有效地測驗出學生發現問題的能力。 矛盾式問題情境,就是在圖形化問題情境中隱含矛盾之所在,讓受試者自行發現矛盾之處,如此更接近設備發生故障時的情境,無論在學習或評量上都更有效果。而這種發現矛盾式問題情境中的不協調所在的能力,則稱作聚斂式發現問題的能力。技術教學的教師利用情境來訓練與評量學習者發現問題的能力,將比起傳統的教學測驗與測驗方式將會更有效。對教師而言,它能輔助傳統教學與檢視其技能教學的成效;對學習者而言,能夠訓練發現問題的能力。配合現今的電腦科技,利用圖像、動畫、虛擬實境等方式,矛盾式問題情境的應用範圍將更具潛力與實用性。

Parallel abstracts

The people bred from the technical & vocational education must have the professional knowledge, the skillful technology, and the correct attitude about jobs in order to utilize the knowledge from school to work better after their careers began. In the aspect of technical & vocational instruction, the student must combine the basic knowledge and the skillful technology to resolve the problems rapidly and efficiently when he faces them. However, the skillful technology is often invalid if one does not find the difficult point of a problem he faces. Therefore, it is a topic worthy of deep thought to realize whether the student can find the difficult point of a problem he faces immediately and accurately in order to utilize the skillful technology to resolve the problem or not. The traditional instruction of technical & vocational education and the traditional method of measurement are not perfect for the ability of the problem-finding and problem-solving of the student. Because the traditional instruction of technical & vocational education focuses on skill in technology and the illustrations by teachers are mostly of the normal procedures and steps and furthermore the achievement test of the instruction emphasizes the test of the word statement, the problematic situation is confined in the small scope such that the student can easily find the problem and then his ability of problem-finding would not be examined effectively. The contradictory problematic situation is to hide where the contradiction is in the picturesque problematic situation and let the examinee find where the contradiction is by himself, thus it is more near the situation of bug or breakdown of equipment and then has more effects on either learning or evaluation. The ability to find where the incoordination is in the contradictory problematic situation is called 'convergent problem finding ability'. The teacher for the instruction of skill utilizes the contradictory problematic situation to train and measure the problem-finding of the student more effectively than the traditional instruction and examination do. As far as the teacher is concerned, the contradictory problematic situation can aid the traditional instruction and examine the effect of the instruction of skill. As far as the learner and student are concerned, it can train their ability of problem-finding. With the current technology of computer, the application field of the contradictory problematic situation will be potential and practical by utilizing image, cartoon and virtual reality.