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政權轉移下的消費空間轉型:戰後初期的公共食堂與酒家(1945-1962)

Transformation of Consumption Space under Political Transition: "Public Canteen" and "Liquor House" during the Post-war Taiwan (1945-1962)

Abstracts


日治時期的酒樓、珈琲館等消費空間在日治結束後改制為公共食堂、酒家,部分大型酒樓於短短一、二十年間從重要公共社交空間轉變為風化場所。本文將社交、消費空間視為社會制度(social institution)之一環,分析當國家體制產生劇烈轉變之際,消費空間此一社會制度如何產生相應的變化。戰後初期新國家機構與新上層階級對消費空間之影響,主要為戰時體制下的節約復國綱領以及新的消費者。在戰時體制力求節約復國的政策下,國民政府挪用過去在中國統治經驗的政策,包括公共食堂、廢娼正俗的主張,要求所有酒樓餐館改名為「公共食堂」,並以限制菜餚數目、金額以及課徵筵席稅等方式,試圖進行家父長式與公共化的消費管理,同時設立形同公娼業的「特種酒家」,將飲食與情色業分割治理。但與此同時,新的上層階級仍是宴席場所的主要消費者,國家機構亦透過抽稅、勞軍的方法與名義徵用公共食堂資源,商人共組的烹飪公會成為維繫雙方平衡的要角與溝通渠道,二者顯示商業市場與國家力量的結合。公共食堂與特種酒家政策為期不長,1956年「特種酒家」法令廢止,1962年有女侍應生的公共食堂一律改稱「酒家」,「酒家」的意義鑲嵌了此類消費空間轉型的歷史過程,以及政權轉移後國家機構、民意代表、婦女團體、商業團體間的角力。

Parallel abstracts


This essay traces the transformation of public canteens and liquor houses during the post-war period, viewing them as a social institution. It is explored how the conditions and social contexts of these establishments were shaped and changed in the period of political transition.After the civil war between the Nationalist Party and Communist Party, the war-time regime mindset of being frugal and thrifty was still in place. All restaurants were forced to transform into ”public canteen,” which suggested planning a consumption scheme which involved procuring only basic food and services.However, there was a clear gap between government regulations and the actual reality of the dining-out market. In addition, although the government restricted dining out by creating various regulations based on patriotic reasoning, it made use of public canteens as a means to get more financial support, also in the name of patriotism. New political elites, commercial forces and women's groups were involved in the transformation of dining establishments from the colonial period to the post-war period. During this time, the notion of a ”liquor house” was formed and utilized.

References


姚人多(2008)。政權轉移之治理性:戰後國民黨政權對日治時代保甲制度的承襲與轉化。臺灣社會學。15,47-108。
吳聰敏(2006)。臺灣戰後的惡性物價膨脹(1945-1950)。國史館學術集刊。10,129-159。
「臺灣地方稅規則中改正(號外一)」,《臺灣總督府府報》,第0271e期(1943.03.01)。Taiwan di fang shui gui ze zhong gai zheng (hao wai yi), Taiwan zong du fu fu bao,di 0271e qi (1943.03.01).
「臺灣省婦女會章程暨職員核示案」,《臺灣省行政長官公署檔案》,檔號019300350023。Taiwan sheng fu nu hui zhang cheng ji zhi yuan he shi an, Taiwan sheng xing zheng zhang guan gong shu dang an, dang hao 019300350023.
《中央日報》,1930-1961。Zhong yang ri bao, 1930-1961.

Cited by


李仲昀(2017)。台灣職場「以貌取人」的不平等──就業「外貌」歧視的法律史考察(1945-2016)〔碩士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU201700004

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