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An Exploration of Pragmatic Behaviors during Play Interaction between Mothers and Children with ASD


本研究旨在探討泛自閉症兒童(Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD)在與母親遊戲互動時出現的語用行為,特別關注在溝通意圖、溝通功能、語用彈性這三者的類型表現。研究對象為生理年齡在53-69個月之間,且皆沒有智力障礙的三名ASD兒童。研究方式為母親與孩子一起玩研究者提供的四樣玩具(球、變形金剛、蠟筆和紙、繪本)約20分鐘。研究者將所有玩玩具的過程錄影拍攝,並以INCA-A語用分類系統(Inventory of Communicative Acts-Abridged)分析編碼當中所收集到的語料。研究發現:「在溝通意圖」中,年齡較小的ASD孩子與母親多出現討論眼前可見事件的類型;年齡最大的孩子則出現表達物體抽象屬性的類型。在「溝通功能」上,母親傾向時常詢問孩子問題、孩子較常出現回答問題的類型。與一般兒童相較之下,ASD兒童同樣具有開啟互動的主動性,但是卻很少出現「詢問一個wh開頭問題」的功能類型。在「語用彈性」中,兩名ASD兒童出現的語用彈性類型比一般兒童較少,以及在低結構的活動中展現出較佳的語用彈性度。最後研究者針對研究結果進行描述分析,並提供相關建議以供未來研究之參考。

Parallel abstracts

Background and Aims: The aim of this study is to examine the pragmatic behaviors of mother and children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) during play interaction, with special focus on communicative intentions, communicative function and pragmatic flexibility. Method: Participants of this study were 3 dyads of mothers and children with ASD. Data were collected when the children were at the age of 53-69 months. The mothers were asked to play 4 sets of toys (ball, Transformers, drawing, storybook) with their children. The whole processes of play were tape recorded for later coding and analysis. The tapes were transcribed following the CHAT format and coded using the adaptation of INCA-A system (Inventory of Communicative Acts-Abridged) developed by Ninio and Snow. Results: Results of this study showed that younger ASD and their mother spent most of time on discussing or negotiating" immediate and objects or events in the environment". Older ASD and his mother spent more of time on discussing "objects or events which are currently not accessible" in communicative intentions. In communicative functions, mothers usually ask questions, and children with ASD tend to answer questions frequently. Compared with the pragmatic behavior of children with typical development, all of ASD showed difficulties in "asking a product-question". In addition, two of ASD showed better pragmatic flexibilities in low structured activities, but their types of pragmatic flexibilities were fewer than children with typical development. Finally, the researcher described the results of analysis for the study, and provide suggestions for future researches.


上誼出版社譯、Patricia, H.(2003)。母雞蘿絲去散步。台北市:上誼文化公司。