Title

我國再生能源政策執行之研究─以屏東縣養水種電計畫為例

Translated Titles

The Implementation of Renewable Energy Policy in Taiwan: A Case of Aqua Solar Farm in Pingtung

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2012.00021

Authors

李彥璋

Key Words

養水種電 ; 政策執行 ; 再生能源政策 ; Aqua Solar Farm ; policy implementation ; renewable energy policy

PublicationName

臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

林子倫

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

2009年我國通過《再生能源發展條例》,希望帶動國內再生能源與產業發展,為我國經濟與科技再創新局。但實施至今近三年,看不見再生能源的大幅度成長,反而是從媒體上看見業者與環團痛批政府與台電阻礙再生能源發展。為此,本研究透過個案進行分析再生能源政策執行現況政策現況與問題。 屏東縣在2009年受到莫拉克颱風重創之後,縣府在林邊、佳冬地區結合國內太陽光電廠商,提出「養水種電」計畫,透過架設太陽光電設備發電並售予台電,再以地租及僱工方式回饋當地農民。但這項計畫從2010年開始由縣府推動,一直到2010年底即將與台電完成簽約之際,能源局以公文方式宣布收購價格與期限的轉折,由原本的「簽約日費率」改為「完工日費率」,讓屏東縣養水種電計畫無法計畫執行下去。 本研究即以「養水種電」為研究對象,使用「深度訪談法」與「文獻分析法」,了解政策產生的政經脈絡與重要參與行為者,並透過「政策執行」為途徑,從「執行者意向」、「資源充足度」、、「參與者意願」、「組織間溝通」、「法規適當性」分析對政策執行過程的影響,最後希望探究我國再生能源政策執行之現況與問題,提出政策建議供參。 經過研究分析發現,台灣的再生能源政策能否被落實,與「執行者意向」有重要關係,無論中央與地方都是由於「執政首長」有關,或推動、或阻礙再生能源發展,如中央有資源管理與法規制定權力,對於不偏好的政策就不予支持,甚至透過收購轉折終止計畫,影響廠商權益。而地方政府,屏東縣由於縣長個人因素,結合廠商發起養水種電計畫,希望藉由光電產業改變產業型態,同時減緩地下水抽取,整合廠商、縣府與民眾推出計畫,且盡力於組織間溝通與法規的解套,讓計畫可以執行。 我國「能源政策」具有「高度中央集權管理」的性質,若沒有執行者的支持,便無法執行。在養水種電中除地方政府推動外,更是可以看見中央政府的阻撓影子,對於不支持的計畫,一紙行政命令就可以推翻,損害民眾與廠商權益,更加影響到政府公信力。這類「由上而下」政策執行模式,強調上層決策者對於下層執行者的影響力,政策的執行係由上層決策者意志所決定,下層執行者只能盡力配合以達成計畫,養水種電就是其中明顯個案。

English Abstract

The Renewable Energy Development Act was approved in 2009 in order to facilitate growth of the renewable energy industry and to create opportunities for economic and technological development in Taiwan. However, after almost three years the renewable energy industry has rarely grown. As many green sectors have criticized, the central government neither actively implemented the Act nor proposed the related policies. The worse part is that the government has further allowed the government-owned Taiwan Power Company to impede the development of the renewable energy industry. As a result, the implementation of the Renewable Energy Development Act and the related policies are in need of further examination, and this thesis aims to point out their problems by analyzing the case of the “Aqua Solar Farm” program in Pingtung County. After Pingtung County was severely destroyed by the Typhoon Morakot in 2009, the county government collaborated with the solar power companies, and proposed the “Aqua Solar Farm” program to transform the local industries (the aquacultural industry and the agricultural industry) and to solve problems of the groundwater extraction by these industries. These solar power companies rented lands from farmers in Linbian Town and Jiaton Town and set up the Photovoltaic system (PV system) to generate electric power. The companies then sold the power to the Taiwan Power Company and in return provided local farmers with rents for the lands and opportunities of employment which could transform these farmers’ ways of living. The program was initiated in 2010 under the cooperation between the county government and solar power companies. However, at the end of the year 2010 before the county government signed the contract with these companies, the Bureau of Energy officially required these companies to complete the system construction as soon as possible. The Bureau of Energy was suspicious that these companies intended to delay the construction to benefit from the energy price fluctuation in the international market. As a result, the “Aqua Solar Farm” program was eventually stopped. Taking the “Aqua Solar Farm Program” as the case study, the thesis first depicts the political and economic context of the program as well as important decisions made by different actors during the policy formation through the in-depth interview and the literature analysis method. Meanwhile, from the perspective of “Policy Implementation”, which includes “Disposition of Actors”, “Resource Allocation Sufficiency”, “Willingness of Participation”, “Organizational Observation” and “Suitability of Regulation”, the thesis also analyzes the effect of the policy implementation. Finally, based on the above analyses, the thesis proposes concrete policy suggestions for the renewable energy policy in Taiwan. Based on the analysis, the thesis find that the implementation of the renewable energy policy is closely related to the “Disposition of Actors”. Both the central and local political leaders are the key factors in determining the successful implementation of the policy. The central government has the power to allocate resources and set up related regulations, and it would be hard for them to support a policy if they cannot benefit from the policy. As the “Aqua Solar Farm” program has shown, the policy was stopped owing to the change of the FIT rate by the official order. Therefore, the central government’s intervention in the program has impaired companies’ interests and local people’s rights. On the other hand, the head of the Pingtung County Mr. TSAO Chi-Hung supported the “Aqua Solar Farm” program for his personal interests and further collaborated with companies to initiate the program. They hoped to transform the local industries via the renewable energy industry and ease problems of the groundwater extraction. The implementation of the energy policy in Taiwan is based on the “highly central concentrated management”, which needs supports from the leader’s will power. Thus, the “Aqua Solar Farm” program is not only promoted by the local government but in fact affected by the central government’s decision. If the central government would not like to promote the policy, the implementation could be cancelled only through an official order. Unfortunately, the interests and rights of companies and the local citizens were impeded and the credibility of the government’s policy was decreased. This is a “top-down” mode of the policy implementation, in which the decision makers from the central can overrule the policy executed by the local government. In sum, the policy implementation is decided according to the top’s disposition, and the lower then can only tries best to support the top’s decision.

Topic Category 社會科學院 > 政治學研究所
社會科學 > 政治學
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