Policy Implementation and Effectiveness Evaluation of Start-up Loans for the Youth : A study on Borrowers
青年創業 ； 創業政策 ； 政策評估 ； Youth Entrepreneurship ； Entrepreneurship Policy ； Policy Evaluation
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根據2010全球創業觀察（Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; 簡稱GEM）數據顯示，台灣民眾認知到具有創業機會與創業能力之比例為29.6%及26.4%，但害怕創業失敗的比例卻高達43.8%。面對現今台灣產業 不斷外移的現象，政府要如何協助台灣中小企業持續穩定的發展更顯重要。在政府眾多的輔導政策中，青年創業貸款的對象特別鎖定青年創業者。本研究透過深度訪談 成功申貸者的方式，探討青年創業貸款實際給予的協助，如資金借貸與創業輔導等，以及此政策的不足之處汲取借貸者建議，以提供未來政策研議，同時，透過創業者給予的建議， 提供未來欲創業青年參考。 研究彙整所有受訪者的意見後，歸納出三個論點。首先，大多數受訪者對於政府的政策立意是肯定的，政府承辦人員的協助態度也相當好，然在資金借貸上，多數受 訪者認為銀行要求過於嚴苛，即便政府規定之企畫書與育成課程都完成後仍不能保證可以獲得貸款，並且在銀行端受到嚴苛的審核。因此，比起銀行，多數受訪者仍期望由政府扮演審核申貸的角色，除了希望可以降低申請難度外，辦理窗口也可由不同銀行統一成單一窗口。其次，輔導協助部分，受貸者多認為規定之20小時創業育成課程內容過於籠統，但企畫書撰寫對創業初期者在財務和運作規劃上可能清楚明瞭。其他專業性的創業課程方面，上過課的受訪者給予高度正面評價，然多數受訪者是不知道此相關資訊的，期望政府可更廣泛宣傳)第三點，創業輔導顧問皆相當 積極，並不時的給予相關資料持續一年至一年多，但顧問之專業性仍受到受訪者的質疑。創業者真正期望的是由成功創業家來予以協助。 最後，研究建議政府在政策上可以做到以下四點提升：創業教育系統化、市場與舞台的國際化、創業貸款的彈性化、及輔導協助的專業化；此外，建議未來欲創業青 年需擁有事業心與萬全的準備，而完善的計畫、財務與稅務的透明化與合夥人關係的妥善經營將會幫助他們更容易去面對接踵而來的挑戰及未預期的狀況。
According to the data of 2010 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), 29.6% of Taiwan people are aware of entrepreneurial opportunities and 26.4% of Taiwan people think they have entrepreneurial ability. However, people as high as 43.8% are still afraid of failure in entrepreneurship. Along with the plight of offshoring on Taiwan industry, knowing how to help the development of small and middle enterprises (SMEs) in a sustained and stable pattern is more important than ever before. Among of career guidance policies of Taiwan government, Business Start-up Loans for Young Entrepreneur is specifically designed for youths who want to start a business. By interviewing the approval loan applicants, this paper is trying to examine the substantial assistances of Business Start-up Loans for Young Entrepreneur including borrowing funds, incubation courses, etc., and the perspective of interviewees in order to provide some advices for policy deliberation in the future, moreover, to give a guideline to those beginners through the successful cases. In regard to collected data, this paper generalized all interviewees’ opinions into three points. First, most interviewees appreciate the incentive of their government on the policy, and they are also grateful for the service attitude of clerical staffs. On the other hand, most of interviewees think the bank eligibility inspection is too restricted, which means that the completion in required business plan and incubation courses does not guarantee the application for approval. Therefore, they prefer the government to be the decision maker rather than banks, which may decrease the difficulty of applying and unify the service windows. Second, most interviewees think the 20 hrs entrepreneurial incubation course is too general, but business plan writing is helpful on clarifying their financial and operational planning. Concerning others specialized courses, most of the interviewees do not know about the course information even though the interviewees, who attended the courses before, give a highly positive evaluation, thus, the government should strengthen on propagating the information. Third, most entrepreneurial consultants are proactive and consistent in giving help to the trainees over one year, but not all of them contain industrial experience. Due to the question of consultants’ profession, the youth entrepreneurs actually want to be taught by other Successful entrepreneurs. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the government can improve the policy in four dimensions: systematized entrepreneurial training, internationalized entrepreneurial market, flexibilized entrepreneurial loan, and specialized entrepreneurial assistance. Furthermore, youths who want to start their business must be ambitious and well-prepared, besides, comprehensive planning, maintaining finance and tax transparency, and managing good partner relationship will help them to cope with incoming challenges and unexpected situations.
社會科學 > 政治學