The Japanese Immigrants and Economic development of Brasil
日裔移民 ； 經濟發展 ； 巴西 ； Japanese Immigrants ； Economic development ； Brasil
|Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication||
|Academic Degree Category||
1908年6月18日，781名日本人抵達巴西聖托斯港。1910年~1914年間，日本移民巴西的數量是1萬4千2百人。1925~1935年間是日本移民巴西的最高峰期，計14萬日本移民前後移入巴西。二次大戰期間直到1959年日本因為戰爭因素暫停向巴西輸出移民，後期的移民改為資本輸出，主要投資在礦業。至此日本向巴西輸出的移民約40萬名移民，70％的移民集中在聖保羅（São Paulo）、12％集中在巴拉那州（Paraná）。 根據日本皇家移民公司和巴西簽訂的移民合約，初到巴西的日本移民主要在聖保羅內地以契約勞工方式從事咖啡種植，直到合約期滿才逐漸向聖保羅海邊地區擴散移居。至今仍有40％的日裔移民仍然從事農業生產，大多數的日裔從事服務業。在金融界、政治界也有相當涉足及成就。在巴西生活的日裔移民與日本政府保持緊密聯繫。長期以來，日本不斷向巴西提供農業開發和科學研究專案的大額貸款和贈與。許多日裔巴西人也從日本學回先進的農業技術在巴西的土地上進行大規模的品種引進、改良和生產。如今巴西許\多大規模農場都由日裔經營。 日裔移民從早期契約制的咖啡園勞動角色，逐漸轉變為自主性農莊、引進新作物，直接成為巴西農業改革的推手。 本論文文主要的目的在於探討（1）面臨國家發展瓶頸的國家（例如：國內產業結構改變、勞動力過剩等），由政府主導的移民發展策略就長程來看是否對本國有所助益。由於早期的移民是由日本皇家移民公司有組織的計劃性輸出，由日本鄉間移出的農業人口接受官營的安排到巴西墾殖，對移民來說只是轉換工作地點、移民並不離開也無意願離開群體，集團移民和集中定居有利日本移民保留自己的民族特性，維護自身在巴西的發展。特殊移民型態和移民紮根的長遠性之間關係的探究也是本文研究重點。（2）日本受到地形和氣候的影響，國內糧食需要仰賴國外進口。許多日裔移民經營的跨國農產運銷公司掌握巴西農業出口，巴西雖然農產量增加、國內糧食卻還有不足的的情形，與跨國農產公司壟斷是否有直間關係也是本文探究一大重點。 最後，筆者就研究成果在本論文末對未定的台灣移民事業提出建議。不管台灣是否會在移民事業上有進一步的進展，多參考他國的經驗和探究他國移民事業行進歷史上的優劣處，相信將對台灣在移民事業上任何一個階段的可行性評估、計畫、法令規制等有所幫助。
In 1907 the Government of the State of São Paulo authorized Japan's Imperial Immigration Company to transfer, annually, a certain of emigrants to Brazil. On June 18 1908, arrived at Santos' harbor the Japanese vessel KASATO MARU with the first group of immigrants composed of 165 families, a total of 786 people. From the harbor they went to coffee farms, in the Mogiana region, State of São Paulo, to work as "colonists". There they started a new life in a foreign country with different climate, culture and language. Other quotas followed them and almost all of them went to live in coffee farms. From 1910 to 1914 arrived from Japan approximately 14,200 immigrants who after ending their labor contract in the coffee farms went to the interior of the State, to the coast near the Santos Juquiá railway or to the suburbs of São Paulo, in order to qet their independence. touring the decade of 10's they established several immigration centers in the region of the North West railway as well as alongside the banks of Ribeira River in Iguape. From 1925 to 1935 these centers spread statewide and became localities. By this time was recorded the arrival in Brazil of approximately 140,000 immigrants including those who went directly to the North of the Country. The immigration flux was interrupted for 10 year because of World War II. In 1959 it started again but the quotas were smaller, especially those that arrived from 1961 on, date of the beginning of Japan's economical recuperation. Up to the present arrived in Brazil approximately 260,000 immigrants. The biggest concentration of immigrants are: São Paulo (73%); Paraná (20%), Mato Grosso (2.5%) and Pará (1.2% ) . The others are living countrywide. Their labor force is employed as follows: Agriculture (50%); Commerce (35%), Industry (15% ) . The industry has grown quickly in view of the establishment in Brazil of Japanese enterprises during the 60's. We believe that 800,000 people compose the Japanese community in Brazil, which is already in its 4th generation. The descendants of the immigrants perform all kind of activity within the cultural and economic sectors. In the past two decades we have had two State Ministers in the Brazilian Government. Following their 80-year-old path immigrants and their descendants who have already close ties with Brazil take part and contribute with love and dedication to the construction of a better and developed country. This year, on June 18, they will celebrate with great rejoicing the beginning of the Japanese immigration into Brazil, since this day symbolizes a landmark of a history started 80 years ago.
國際事務學院 > 拉丁美洲研究所碩士班