Title

論華人音樂之跨國主義:兩個美國華裔民族管弦樂團之比較研究

Translated Titles

Negotiating the modern national orchestra on transnational terrains: A comparative study of two modern Chinese orchestras in America

Authors

周康岱

Key Words

美國華裔民族管弦樂團 ; HASH(0x21967a50) ; HASH(0x21967af0) ; 跨國主義 ; 紐約中國民族樂團 ; 北美洲中國音樂研究會民族管弦樂團 ; 中華性 ; Ethnic Chinese ; America ; the modern Chinese orchestra ; transnationalism ; the Chinese Music Ensemble of New York ; the Chinese Classical Orchestra of the Chinese Music Society of North America ; Chineseness

PublicationName

臺灣師範大學華語文教學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2010年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

楊聰榮

Content Language

英文

Chinese Abstract

1920年代於中國形成的現代民族管弦樂團(modern Chinese orchestra),在1960年代與70年代由華裔移民帶入美國社會。本論文將以比較分析的方式,討論兩個於美國創立且歷史悠久的民族樂團,筆者將以華人原居國的現代民族樂團為背景,進而討論二次世界大戰之後,美國華裔現代民族管弦樂團是如何透過跨國網絡(transnational networking),在美國不同的文化脈絡下,形成新的習性並受到一定程度的約束。 在美國華裔的族群中,現代民族樂團是二戰後出現的新現象。筆者將討論華人音樂在美國近兩百年的歷史背景,進而詮釋音樂方面之「中華性」(Chineseness)的表現性,在二戰後明顯地朝向多元化發展。特別是1943年《排華法案》的廢除、二次世界大戰、中國內戰、1965年的《移民法》以及1970年代末中國開門解放政策這些歷史事件更直接或間接地影響了移民文化。本文將透過美國華裔民族樂團的產生與發展來解釋此文化現象。 本研究將探討紐約中國民族樂團(the Chinese Music Ensemble of New York)和北美洲中國音樂研究會的民族管弦樂團(the Chinese Classical Orchestra of the Chinese Music Society of North America)此兩個均為二戰後成立並兼具歷史性與規模性的樂團。本文將以比較分析的方式來討論兩個樂團與原居地樂團之異同,透過兩個樂團的跨國活動(transnational activities)來證明跨國性造成許多表演習性和音樂性的變遷及延續,進一步討論是如何達成「中華性」之意義,而不僅是在美國當地的意義,且包含大量跨國意義在內。此研究僅為美國社會背景下之存在與影響的一個區域案例,希望藉此可作為往後更為廣泛的研究參考。

English Abstract

Only appearing in China less than a century ago in the 1920s and 30s, modern Chinese orchestras were first established among the ethnic Chinese population of the US during the 1960s and 70s. This thesis is a comparative analysis of two of the earliest and largest modern Chinese orchestras formed among the ethnic Chinese in the US, namely the Chinese Music Ensemble of New York (1961) and the Chinese Classical Orchestra of the Chinese Music Society of North America (1976). A particular emphasis is placed upon transnational networking, local/global activities and the cultural politics of music within these spheres of action, and on how changes and continuities in the patterns of performance practices and musicality in terms of the negotiated meanings of Chineseness surrounding the modern Chinese orchestra on the local/transnational stage develop and evolve. The musical idiosyncrasies of Chineseness for the ethnic Chinese demographic of the US has shifted significantly in the postwar era, growing more complex and heterogeneous. For further insight into the local/global networking of each orchestra, we look at the lives, agency and activities of each orchestra‘s founders, directors and members.

Topic Category 人文學 > 語言學
人文學 > 中國文學
國際與僑教學院 > 華語文教學研究所
Reference
  1. ______. 1994. Nations unbound: Transnational projects, postcolonial predicaments, and deterritorialized nation-states. New York: Routledge.
    連結:
  2. ______. 1995a. From immigrant to transmigrant: Theorizing transnational migration. Anthropological quarterly 68 (1):48-63
    連結:
  3. ______. 1995b. Transnationalism, nation-states, and culture. Current anthropology 36 (4): 683-686.
    連結:
  4. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984. Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    連結:
  5. Chan, Keng Wah Kenneth. 1999. “Peripheral” Chinese Americans and the cultural politics of Chinese diaspora, transnationalism, and return. PhD diss., Univ. of Florida.
    連結:
  6. Chan, Sau Yan and Sai-shing Yung. 1991. Cantonese operatic clubs in New York Chinatown: A fieldwork report. In Red boat on the canal: Cantonese opera in New York Chinatown, ed. Isabelle Duchesne. New York: Museum of Chinese in the Americas. Pp. 70-91.
    連結:
  7. Chang, Iris. 2003. The Chinese in America: A narrative history. New York: Penguin Books.
    連結:
  8. Chen Yong. 2006. Understanding Chinese American transnationalism during the early twentieth century: An economic perspective. In Chinese American transnationalism: The flow of people, resources and ideas between China and America during the exclusion era. Ed. Sucheng Chan. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Pp. 156-173.
    連結:
  9. Chow, Rey. 1993. Writing diaspora: Tactics of intervention in contemporary culture studies. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    連結:
  10. ______. 1998. Introduction: On Chineseness as a theoretical problem. Boundary 225 (3): 1-24.
    連結:
  11. Clifford, James. 1994. Diaspora. Cultural anthropology 9:311.
    連結:
  12. Davidson, Andrew and Kuah-Pearce Khun Eng. 2008. Introduction: Diasporic memories and identities. In Davidson, Andrew and Kuah-Pearce Khun Eng eds., At home in the Chinese diaspora: Memories, identities and belongings. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Pp.1-11.
    連結:
  13. Gilroy, Paul. 1993. The black Atlantic: modernity and double consciousness. London: Verso.
    連結:
  14. Gullen, M.F. 2001. Is globalization civilizing, destructive or feeble? A critique of five key debates in the social science literature. Annual review of sociology 27: 235-60.
    連結:
  15. Gupta, A. and J Ferguson. 1992. Beyond “culture”: Space, identity and the politics of difference. Cultural anthropology 7:6-23.
    連結:
  16. Han, Kuo-Huang 韓國鐄 [Han Guohuang]. 1978. The Chinese concept of program music. Asian music 10 (1):17-38.
    連結:
  17. ______. 1984. Liu mei san yue ren: Huang Zi, Tan Xiaolin, Ying Shangneng liu mei ziliao zhuanji. 留美三樂人:黄自, 譚小麟, 應尚能留美資料專輯 [Three musicians studying abroad in America: A collection of data regarding Huang Zi, Tan Xiaolin and Ying Shangneng studying abroad in America]. Taibei: Shibao wenhua chuban shiye youxian gongsi 時報文化出版事業有限公司.
    連結:
  18. ______. 1990. Xiandai zhongguo minzu yuetuan 現代中國民族樂團 [the modern Chinese orchestra]. In Han Guohuang yinyue wenji 韓國鐄音樂文集 [Han Kuohuang music collection]. Yueju Chubanshe 樂韻出版社. 109-132.
    連結:
  19. ______. 1992. Han Guohuang yinyue wenji 韓國鐄音樂文集 [Han Kuohuang music collection], di san ce 第三冊 [volume 3]. Meiguo zhi Zhongguo yinyue yanjiu yu jiaoxue 美國之中國音樂研究與教學 [Chinese music research and teaching in the United States]. Yueju Chubanshe 樂韻出版社. pp.185-193
    連結:
  20. ______ . 1999. Han Guohuang yinyue wenji 韓國鐄音樂文集 [Han Kuohuang music collection], di si ce 第四冊 [volume 4]. Shanghai gongbuju yuedui yanjiu 上海工部局樂隊研究 [Research on the Shanghai worker’s orchestra]. Yueju Chubanshe 樂韻出版社.pp.135-204.
    連結:
  21. Han, Kuo-Huang and Judith Gray. 1979. The modern Chinese orchestra. Asian music 11 (1): 1-43.
    連結:
  22. Hannerz, Ulf. 1996. Transnational connections: Culture, people, places. London: Routledge.
    連結:
  23. Hsu, Madeline. 2000. Dreaming of gold, dreaming of home: Transnationalism and migration between the United States and South Chinese, 1882-1943. California: Stanford University Press.
    連結:
  24. Kunz, E.F. 1973. "The refugee in flight: Kinetic models and forms of displacement." In International migration review 7(2):125-146.
    連結:
  25. ¬______. 2005. Entertaining Chineseness: Chinese singing clubs in contemporary Bangkok. Visual Anthropology 18 (2&3): 143-166.
    連結:
  26. ______. 2008. Music in China: Expressing music, expressing culture. New York: Oxford University Press.
    連結:
  27. Leary, James. 1984. Old time music in northern Wisconsin. American music (Spring):71-83.
    連結:
  28. Lee, Rose Hum. 1958. The stranded Chinese in the United States. Phylon 19(2):180-194.
    連結:
  29. Li Qiaowen 李巧雯. 2005. Meiguo huaren xin yimin shehui fazhan yu shiying zhi chutan 美國華人新移民社會發展與適應之初探 [A preliminary analysis of development and adaption within the society of new Chinese American immigrants]. In Zhongxing shixue 中興史學 [Journal of the department of history at National Chung-Hsing University ] 11:129-160.
    連結:
  30. Lum, Casey Man Kong. 1996. In search of a voice: Karaoke and the construction of identity in Chinese America. New York: Psychology Press.
    連結:
  31. Mangiafico, Luciano. 1988. Contemporary American immigrants: Patterns of Filipino, Korean, and Chinese settlement in the United States. New York: Praeger.
    連結:
  32. Manuel, Peter. 1988. Popular musics of the non-western world: An introductory survey. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    連結:
  33. McKeown, Adam. 1999. Conceptualizing Chinese diasporas, 1842 to 1949. The journal of Asian studies 58 (2):306-37.
    連結:
  34. ______. 2001. Ethnographies of Chinese transnationalism. Diaspora 10 (3): 341-360.
    連結:
  35. ______. 2001. Chinese migrant networks and cultural change: Peru, Chicago, and Hawaii: 1900-1936. Chicago: University of Chicago.
    連結:
  36. Nettl, Bruno ed. 1978. Eight urban musical cultures: Tradition and change. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    連結:
  37. Qiao Jian-Zhong and Xue Yibing. 1999. The establishment of the modern Chinese orchestra and the interchange between Chinese and western musical culture. (Translated from Mandarin by Helen Rees) Intercultural music 2:15-30.
    連結:
  38. Rao, Nancy Yunhwa. 2000. Racial essence and historical invisibility: Chinese opera in New York, 1930. Cambridge opera journal 12(2): 135-62.
    連結:
  39. ______. 2002. Songs of the exclusion era: New York Chinatown’s opera theaters in the 1920s. American Music 20(4):399-444.
    連結:
  40. ______. 2009. The color of music heritage: Chinese America in American ultra-modern music. Journal of Asian American studies 12(1):83-119.
    連結:
  41. Reyes Schramm, Adalaida. 1979. Ethnic music, the urban area, and ethnomusicology. Sociologus 29(2):1-21.
    連結:
  42. ______. 1983. Flying dragons, flowing streams: Music in the life of San Francisco's Chinese. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    連結:
  43. Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books.
    連結:
  44. ______. 2001. Chinese music in the 20th century. Chicago: Chinese Music Society of North America.
    連結:
  45. Smith, Barbara. 1975. Chinese music in Hawaii. Asian Music 6(1-2):225-230.
    連結:
  46. Tan, Sooi Beng. 2000. The huayue tuan (Chinese orchestra) in Malaysia: Adapting to survive. Asian Music 31 (2): 107-128.
    連結:
  47. The Chinese Music Ensemble of New York. 1991. Thirtieth Anniversary Special Issue. [Unpublished data].
    連結:
  48. Tololyan, Kachig. 1991. The nation-state and its others: In lieu of a preface. Diaspora (1): 3-7.
    連結:
  49. Vertovec, Steven. 2009. Transnationalism. New York: Routledge.
    連結:
  50. Witzleben, J. Lawrence. 1995. Silk and bamboo music in Shanghai: The jiangnan sizhu instrumental ensemble tradition. Kent: Kent State University Press.
    連結:
  51. Wong, Isabel K. F. 1985. The Many Roles of Peking Opera in San Francisco in the 1980s. Selected reports in ethnomusicology 6:173-88.
    連結:
  52. Xu Changhui 許常惠 (Hsu Tsang-Houei). 1999. Minzu yinyue lunshu gao (si) 民族音樂論述稿(四) [Ethnomusicological essays IV]. Taibei: Yue yun chubanshe 台北:樂韻出版社.
    連結:
  53. Yen, Wen-Hsiung. 1994. Chinese American music in Southern California. In Origins and destinations: 41 essays on Chinese America. Los Angeles, California: Chinese Historical Society of Southern California and UCLA Asian American Studies Center. 277-291.
    連結:
  54. Yin, Xiao-Huang. 2006. Writing a place in American life: The sensibilities of American-born Chinese as reflected in life stories from the exclusion era. In Chinese American transnationalism: The flow of people, resources and ideas between China and America during the exclusion era. Ed. Sucheng Chan. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Pp. 209-236.
    連結:
  55. ______. 1999. Chinese musicological research in China, abroad, and other issues. ACMR Reports 12:127-131.
    連結:
  56. Yuan, D.Y. 1966. Chinatown and beyond: The Chinese population in metropolitan New York. Phylon 27(4):321-32.
    連結:
  57. ______. 1994. Music making in cultural displacement: The Chinese-American odyssey. Diaspora 3 (3): 273-288.
    連結:
  58. ______. 2001b. Chinese music. In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music (Volume 3, the United States and Canada), ed. Ellen Koskoff, 957-966. New York: Garland Pub.
    連結:
  59. ______. 2010. Claiming diaspora: Music, transnationalism, and cultural politics in Asian/Chinese America. New York: Oxford University Press.
    連結:
  60. Zhou Min. 1992a. Chinatown: The socioeconomic potential of an urban enclave. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    連結:
  61. ______. 1992b. Gaining the upper hand: Economic mobility among immigrant and domestic minorities. Ethnic and racial studies 15(4):491-513.
    連結:
  62. Audio-visual materials:
    連結:
  63. Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined communities. New York: Verso. (Reprinted 2006).
  64. Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at large. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  65. Basch, Linda, Nina Glick Schiller and Cristina Szantion-Blanc. 1992. Transnationalism: A new analytic framework for understanding migration. In Glick Schiller et al. (eds.), Towards a transnational perspective on migration. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. Pp.1-24.
  66. Beech, Hannah. Dec. 06, 2007. Chasing the Japanese Dream. TIME.
  67. Bhaba, H. 1994. The location of culture. New York: Routledge.
  68. Bourne, R.S. 1916. Transnational America. The Atlantic monthly July: 86-97.
  69. Cai Zongde 蔡宗德. 2010. Zhengzhi yu jingji yingxiang xia de yin ni huaren yinyue wenhua jian gou yu ren tong 政治與經濟影響下的印尼華人音樂文化建構與認同 [Identity and the construction of musical culture among the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia under political and economic influence]. Paper presented at 2010 annual Conference on Taiwan's Southeast Asian studies: The construction and development of arts, culture, and society in Southeast Asia. 2010年台灣的東南亞區域研究年度研討會:東南亞藝術,文化與社會的建構與發展. Tainan, Taiwan. April 30 – May 1.
  70. Chan, Margaret. 1996. The ‘Yellow River Piano Concerto’ as a site for negotiating cultural spaces for a diasporic Chinese community in Toronto. Master’s thesis, York Univ.
  71. Chen Jingyu 陳靜瑜. 1995. Zhijiage huabu de jinmao ji qi mianlin de wenti 芝加哥華埠的近貌及其面臨的問題 [Recent happenings and problems faced in Chicago’s Chinatown]. In Haiwai huaren yanjiu 海外華人研究 [Journal of overseas Chinese studies] 3:211-231. Zhonghua Minguo haiwai huaren yanjiu xuehui 中華民國海外華人研究學會 [The society of Overseas Chinese studies]. Taipei, Taiwan.
  72. ______. 2000. Niuyue Manhadun, yi ge huaren shequ zhi ge’an yanjiu 紐約曼哈頓華埠,一個美國華人社區之個案研究 [The Chinatown of Manhattan, New York: A case study of a Chinese American community]. 台北縣板橋市:稻鄉 Taibei xian, Banqiao shi: Dao xiang.
  73. ______. June 2002. Jin ban shiji lai Meiguo huaqiao shehui de yanjiu quxiang shuping 近半世紀來美國華僑社會的研究取向述評 [A review of research on Chinese American society over the past half century]. In Xingda renwen xuebao 興大人文學報 [Journal of Humanities College of Liberal Arts National Chung Hsing University] 32:1117-1143.
  74. Chen Qing’en 陳慶恩. 2005. Cong minzu guan xian yue tuan de minzuhua shiyan tan qi從民族管弦樂團的民族化實驗談起 [The repertoire of the modern Chinese orchestra: Experiment or falsification]. In New Music in China and The C.C. Liu Collection at the University of Hong Kong. Edited and compiled by Helen Woo. Xianggang daxue chubanshe 香港大學出版社 [Hong Kong University Press].
  75. Chen Mingzhi 陳明志. 2004. Zhongyue yin nin geng dong ting: minzu guanxian yue daoshang 中樂因您更動聽:民族管弦樂導賞 [Chinese music is more moving with you: appreciation guide for modern Chinese orchestra music]. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing. 上下兩冊 [two volumes].
  76. Cho, Gene Jinsiong. 2003. The discovery of musical equal temperament in China and Europe in the sixteenth century. New York: Edwin Mellen Press.
  77. Clifford, James and George Marcus (eds.). 1986. Writing culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  78. Degh, Linda. 1968-9. Survival and revival of European folk cultures in America. Ethnologia Europaea 2(3):97-108.
  79. Deursen, John F. van. 2007. A golden mountain rediscovered: Sizhu and the modern Chinese orchestra. PhD diss., Univ. of British Columbia.
  80. Dirlik, Arif. 1996. The global in the local. In Robin Wilson and Wimal Dissanayake eds. Global/Local: Cultural production and the transnational imaginary. Durham: Duke University Press. Pp. 21-45.
  81. Douw, Leo. 2000. Diasporas and transnational institution-building: Some research questions. New studies on Chinese overseas and China. Edited by Cen Huang, et al. 5-29. Ledien: International Institute for Asian Studies.
  82. Du Bois, W.E.B. 1994. The souls of black folk. New York: Gramercy Books.
  83. Featherstone, Mike. 1996. Localism, globalism, and cultural diversity. Global / Local: Cultural production and the transnational imaginary. Edited by Rob Wilson and Wimal Disanayake. Durham: Duke University Press. Pp.46-77.
  84. Fu Tianyu 傅天瑜. June 10, 1991. Niuyue Zhongguo minzu yuetuan san shi zhou nian tuan qing yinyuehui: chui la tan bo jiaoxiang, zheng qin di hu zhengming: youya wanly yu haofang kaikuo yuefeng kou jin tingzhong xin xian 紐約中國民族樂團三十周年團慶音樂會:吹拉彈撥交響,箏琴笛胡爭鳴:優雅婉麗與豪放開濶樂風扣緊聽眾心弦 [Chinese Music Ensemble of New York’s 30th anniversary concert: blown, bowed, plucked in symphony: graceful, elegant and bold, expansive music styles pulling the heart-strings of the audience]. Shijie ribao世界日報 [World Journal].
  85. Fu Liming 傅利民. 2005. Zhongguo minzu qiyue peiqi jiaocheng 中国民族器乐配器教程 [A curriculum for the orchestration of Chinese ethnic instrumental music]. Shanghai: Shanghai jiaoyu chubanshe 上海:上海教育出版社.
  86. Gao Houyong 高厚永. 1994. Huigu yu zhanwang: Zhenglun yu tansuo fazhan le ershi shijide guoyue 回顧與展望:爭論與探索發展了二十世紀的國樂 [Looking back and looking forward: Debating and developing Chinese music in the 20th century]. In Liu Ching-chih and Wu ganbo (eds.), Zhongguo xin yinyue shi lun ji: guoyue sixiang 中國新音樂史論集:國樂思想 [History of New Music in China: The Development of Chinese Music]. Xianggang daxue chubanshe 香港大學出版社 [The University of Hong Kong].
  87. Gaurnizo, Luis and Michael Smith. 1998. The locations of transnationalism. Transnationalism from below. Edited by Michael Smith and Luis Guarnizo. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
  88. Grobman, Gary. 2008. The nonprofit handbook: Everything you need to know to start and run your nonprofit organization. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: White Hat Communications
  89. Guo Xiurong郭秀容. 2005. Xiandai guoyue tuan (minzu guanxian yuetuan) yueqi gaige zhi yanjiu現代國樂團(民族管絃樂團)樂器改革之硏究 [A study on instrument reform in modern Chinese orchestras]. Taibei: xianjing maoyi 台北:仙靖貿易.
  90. Guy, Nancy. 2005. Peiking opera and politics in Taiwan. Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
  91. ______. 1981. Zi xi cu dong自西徂東:中國音樂文集 [From west to east, collected works on Chinese music]. Taibei shi: Shibao chubanshe 台北市:時報出版社 [Taipei City: China Times Publishing Company].
  92. ______. 1985. Zi xi cu dong自西徂東:中國音樂文集 [From west to east, collected works on Chinese music], er ce二冊 [volume two]. Taibei shi: Shibao chubanshe 台北市:時報出版社 [Taipei City: China Times Publishing Company].
  93. Han, Kuo-Huang and Lindy Li Mark. 1980. Evolution and revolution in Chinese music. In Musics of many cultures: An intoduction. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Pp. 10-31.
  94. Ho, Chuimei and Soo Lon Moy (eds.). 2005. Chinese in Chicago: 1870-1945. Chicago: Arcadia Publishing.
  95. Hu Dengtiao 胡登跳. 1994. Lun zhongguo minzu guanxian yuedui 論中國民族管弦樂隊 [A discussion of the Chinese orchestra]. In Liu Ching-chih and Wu ganbo (eds.), Zhongguo xin yinyue shi lun ji: guoyue sixiang 中國新音樂史論集:國樂思想 [History of New Music in China: The Development of Chinese Music]. Xianggang daxue chubanshe 香港大學出版社 [The University of Hong Kong]. 253-259.
  96. ______. 1997. Minzu guanxian yue fa 民族管弦乐法 [The orchestration of national music]. Shanghai: Shanghai yinyue chubanshe 上海:上海音乐出版社.
  97. Huang Baolian 黃寶蓮. 1988. Guoyue chuan bo zhe Zhang Quannian國樂傳播者張銓念 [Disseminator of national music: Chang Tsuan-nien]. Shijie zhoukan世界週刊 [World journal weekly] (October 16). New York.
  98. Jin Xuedong 靳学东. 2001. Zhongguo yinyue daolan中国音乐导览 [A guide to Chinese music]. Beijing: Renmin yinyue chubanshe 人民音乐出版社.
  99. Kottak, Conrad. 2005. Windows on humanity. New York: McGraw Hill.
  100. Klymasz, Robert. 1970. Ukrainian folklore in Canada: An immigration complex in transition. PhD diss., Indiana Univ.
  101. Lai, Him Mark 麥禮謙 [Mai Liqian]. 1989. Chinese American studies: A historical survey. Haiwai huaren yanjiu 海外華人研究 Journal of overseas Chinese studies 1:27-46.
  102. Lam, Joseph S.C. 2008. Chinese music and its globalized past and present. Macalester international 21:29-77.
  103. Lawrence, Helen. 1992. The Chinese and their musics in northern and eastern Australia. ACMR newsletter 5(2):35-38.
  104. Lau, Frederick. 2004. Serenading the ancestors: Chinese Qingming Festival in Honolulu. Yearbook for traditional music 36:128-143.
  105. Lee, Josephine Tsui Yueh. 2007. New York City’s Chinese community. Chicago: Arcadia Publishing.
  106. ______. 1960. The Chinese in the United States of America. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
  107. Lee, Tong Soon. 2009. Grace Liu and Cantonese opera in England. In Lives in Chinese music, ed. Helen Rees, 119-144. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
  108. Lian Peide 连培德 (Lien Pei-te)(translated by Wan Xiaohong 万晓宏). 2009. Meiguo huaren he qi ta zhu yao yayi zuqun de kuaguo zhengzhi huodong diaocha 美国华人和其他主要亚裔族群的跨国政治活动调查 [Surveying transnational political practices among the Chinese and other major Asian ethnic groups in the United States]. Huaqiao huaren lishi yanjiu华侨华人历史研究 [Overseas Chinese History Studies] 1:27-39.
  109. Lin Yongzhang 林詠璋 (Lam Wing Cheong). 2004. Zhimindi houqi huanjing de yinyue renting: Xianggang zhengfu yinyue shiwuchu qingnian zhongyue tuan tuanyuan ge’an yanjiu 殖民地後期環境的音樂認同:香港政府音樂事務處青年中樂團團員個案研究 [“Musical Identity” in the late colonial period: A case study on the members of the Music Office’s Hong Kong youth Chinese orchestras]. Ph.D. diss., Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong.
  110. Lin Youren 林友仁. 2008. Zui zao de minzu guanxian yuetuan: Da tong yue hui 最早的民族管弦乐团,大同乐会 [The earliest modern Chinese orchestra: Datong ensemble]. Xiao yanzoujia 小演奏家 [Little performer] 10:49.
  111. Ling Huping. March 2007. Meiguo huaren yanjiu de xin shiye 美国华人研究的新视野:文化社区理论 [New perspective on Chinese American studies: Cultural community theory]. In Huaqiao huaren lishi yanjiu 华侨华人历史研究 [Overseas Chinese History Studies] 1:25-31.
  112. Liu Boji 劉伯驥. 1981. Meiguo Huaqiao shi xu pian 美國華僑史續篇 [History of Chinese in America: A sequel]. Taibei: Liming wenhua shiye gongsi 台北:黎明文化事業公司.
  113. Liu Hong 劉宏. 2002. Kuaguo huaren: shizheng fenxi yu lilun sikao 跨國華人:實證分析與理論思考 [Transnational Chinese: Empirical analysis and theoretical inquiry]. In Ershi shiji 二十一世紀 [The twenty-first century review] 71:121-131. Xianggang: Zhongwen daxue chubanshe香港:中文大學出版社 [Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press].
  114. Luo Yongsheng 羅永生. 2005. Tan zhonghuaxing dangzhong de zhiminxing 談中華性當中的殖民性 [A discussion of the colonialism of Chineseness]. In Pipan liandai: 2005 Yazhou Huaren wenhua luntan 批判連帶:2005亞洲華人文化論壇 [Critical Nexus: The 2005 Cultural Forum for Chinese in Asia], ed. Chen Guangxing, 79-89. Taibei shi: Taiwan shehui yanjiu jikan chuban 台北市:台灣社會研究季刊出版. (Conference held in Taipei on January 11, 2005).
  115. Mai Liqian 麥禮謙 (Him Mark Lai). 1992. Cong huaqiao dao huaren, er shi shiji Meiguo huaren shehui fazhan shi 從華僑到華人:二十世紀美國華人社會發展史 [From huaqiao to huaren: A developmental history of ethnic Chinese society in America during the 20th century]. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing.
  116. Mazur, Audrey R. 1988. Music in New York City's Chinese community. New York folklore 14:89-99.
  117. Peng Li 彭麗. 2005. Peng Xiuwen minzu guanxian yue yishu yanjiu 彭修文民族管弦乐艺术研究 [A study on the ethnic (Chinese) orchestral music of Peng Xiuwen]. Beijing: Zhongyang yinyue xueyuan chubanshe中央音乐学院出版社.
  118. Peng Xiuwen 彭修文. 1994. Min yue suo tan 民樂瑣談 [A trifling discussion of Chinese music]. In Liu Ching-chih and Wu ganbo (eds.), Zhongguo xin yinyue shi lun ji: guoyue sixiang 中國新音樂史論集:國樂思想 [History of New Music in China: The Development of Chinese Music]. Xianggang daxue chubanshe 香港大學出版社 [The University of Hong Kong]. 267-272.
  119. Riddle, Ronald. 1976. “The Cantonese opera: A chapter in Chinese American History.” In The life, influence, and the role of the Chinese in the United States, 1776-1960. Ed. T. Chinn. San Francisco. p.40.
  120. ______. 1978. Music clubs and ensembles in San Francisco’s Chinese community. In Eight urban musical cultures: Tradition and change, ed. Bruno Nettl, 223-59. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
  121. ______. 1979. Recent trends in the musical life of America’s urban Chinese. In Chinese Historical Soceity of America Bulletin XIV/3:3.
  122. Rong Hongzeng 榮鴻曾 (Bell Yung). 1993. Zhongguo yinyue zai Meiguo, chubu diaocha fang’an 中國音樂在美國----初步調查方案 [A preliminary investigation of Chinese music in America]. Jiuzhou Xuekan 九州學刊 [Chinese culture quarterly] 2:139-143.
  123. Samson, Valerie. 1999. Chinese music in San Francisco Bay Area. Journal of the association for Chinese music research 12:47-102.
  124. Shen Xingyang 沈星揚 [Shen Sinyan]. 1982. Zhongguo yinyue jie dui renlei ying fu de zeren 中国音乐界对人类应付的责任 [The responsibility of Chinese music to mankind]. Zhongguo Yinyue 中国音乐 [Chinese music] 6:18-21.
  125. ______. 1989. Zhongguo minzu guanxian yuedui de yinyue kongjian lilun 中国民族管弦乐队的音乐空间理论 [On the Acoustical Space of the Chinese Orchestra]. Renmin yinyue人民音乐 [People’s music] 2: 2-4.
  126. ______. 1991a. Chinese music and orchestration: A primer on principles and practice. Chicago: Chinese Music Society of North America.
  127. ______. 1991b. Zai Beimeizhou de Zhongguo yinyue gongzuo, xie zai Beimeizhou yinyue yanjiuhui guoji huiyi zhi qian 在北美洲的中国音乐工作,写在北美洲中国音乐研究会国际会议之前 [Chinese music work in North America, writing before the international conference of the Chinese Music Society of North America]. In Renmin yinyue 人民音乐 [People’s music] 3.
  128. ______. 1991c. Beimeizhou Zhongguo yinyue yanjiuhui shi wu zhou nian guoji huiyi, huigu yu qianzhan 北美洲中国音乐研究会十五周年国际会议,回顾与前瞻 [International conference for the Chinese Music Society of North America’s 15th anniversary, looking back and future prospects]. In Zhongguo yinyue 中国音乐 [Chinese music] 4.
  129. ______. 1994. Cong A-bing zuopin zhong kan Zhongguo yinyue de yishu dao lu 从阿炳作品中看中国音乐的艺术道路 [Looking at the artistic path of Chinese music from the works of Abing]. Renmin yinyue 人民音乐 [People’s music] 1:18-21
  130. ______. 1997. Peng Xiuwen de yinyue 彭修文的音乐 [The music of Peng Xiuwen]. Renmin yinyue 人民音乐 [People’s music] 5: 28-29.
  131. ______. 2000a. Ping zhongyang minzu yuetuan zaidu fang mei yan chu 评中央民族乐团再度访美演出 [A critique of the central traditional orchestra’s second tour in the US]. Renmin yinyue 人民音乐 [People’s music] 12:45.
  132. ______. 2000b. China, a journey into its musical art. Chicago: Chinese Music Society of North America.
  133. Shen Xingyang 沈星扬and Liang Yanmai 梁燕麦. 1984. Shi shenme goucheng le Zhongguo yinyue de Zhongguo fengge 是什么构成了中国音乐的中国风格 [What constructs the Chinese style of Chinese music?]. In Guangzhou yinyue xueyuan xuebao 广州音乐学院学报 [Journal of the Guangzhou conservatory of music] 4.
  134. Shen, Ted. Oct. 10, 1991. Chinese classical orchestra. Chicago reader.
  135. ______. March 5, 1997. East comes West, National Traditional Orchestra of China revitalizes native sound. Chicago Tribune.
  136. ______. Aug. 24, 2000. China National Orchestra. Chicago reader.
  137. Slobin, Mark. 1993. Subcultural sounds: Micromusics of the west. New England: Wesleyan University Press.
  138. ______. 2003. The “destiny” of diaspora in ethnomusicology. The cultural study of music: A critical introduction. Edited by Martin Clayton, et al. New York: Routledge.
  139. Sun Keren et al 孫克仁等人. 1982. Wo guo minzu guan xian yuedui jiegou tizhi de xingcheng he yange 我国民族管弦乐队结构体制的形成和沿革 [The formation and history of the structural system for the modern Chinese orchestra in China]. Zhongyang yinyue xueyuan xuebao 中央音乐学院学报 [Journal of the Central Conservatory of Music] 1. Beijing: Central Conservatory of China.
  140. Sun, Wanning. Introduction: Transnationalism and a global diasporic Chinese mediasphere. In Sun, Wanning ed., Media and the Chinese diaspora. New York: Routledge. pp.1-25
  141. Sung, Betty Lee. 1967. Mountain of gold: The story of the Chinese in America. New York: Macmillan.
  142. Tanner, Harold. 2009. China: A history. Indianapolis, Indiana: Hacket Publishing.
  143. The Chinese Music Society of North America. 1978 Chinese Music general newsletter 1-2. Woodridge, Illinois.
  144. ______. 1979-Present. Chinese Music. Woodridge, Illinois.
  145. Thrasher, Alan. 2000. Chinese musical instruments. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  146. ______. 2008. Sizhu instrumental music of South China: Ethos, theory and practice. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.
  147. Tong, Benson. 2003. The Chinese Americans. Denver: University Press of Colorado.
  148. Tsui, Ying-fai. 1990. Amateur modernized Chinese orchestras in Hong Kong in the 1970’s. Master’s thesis, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
  149. Wai Wai 外外 (penname). Jan. 17, 1972. Zhongguo zhi ye ji xiang 中國之夜紀詳 [A detailed account of China night]. Meizhou ribao美洲日報 [American daily].
  150. Wang Yuhe. 1987 Zhongguo jin xiandai yin yuejia ping zhuan, shangce 中国近现代音乐家评传 [Studies on contemporary Chinese composers, part 1]. Beijing: Wenhua yishu chuban she 北京:文化艺术出版社.
  151. Wang Yuhe (ed.) 汪毓和. 2002. Zhongguo jin xian dai yinyue shi中国近现代音乐史 [History of modern Chinese music]. Beijing: Renmin yinyue chubanshe (reprinted 2008).
  152. Wen Qiuyuan 溫秋媛. Oct. 2, 1988. Xuanyang guocui, fayang chuantong wenhua: Ye Tianjun zusun san dai bu yi yu li 宣揚國粹,發揚傳統文化:葉天均祖孫三代不遺餘力 [Propagating the national essence, exalting traditional culture: Ye Tianjun and three generations spare no efforts]. Shijie ribao世界日報 [World journal].
  153. ______. 2005. National musics and national orchestras: A case study on the modern Chinese orchestra. Asian musicology 6:153-162.
  154. Wu Qianjin吴前进. 2004. Kuaguo zhuyi: Quanqiuhua shidai yimin wenti yanjiu de xin shiye 跨国主义:全球化时代移民问题研究的新视野 [Transnationalism: A new vision of immigration studies in the globalization era]. In Guanji guancha 国际观察 [International review] 3:55-58.
  155. ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬______. 2006. Lengzhan hou huaren yimin de kuaguo minzu zhuyi, yi meiguo huaren shehui wei li 冷战后华人移民的跨国民族主义———以美国华人社会为例 [Migrants , Nationalism and Transnationalism in the Post-Cold War Period: A Case Study on the American Chinese]. Huaqiao huaren lishi yanjiu 华侨华人历史研究 [Overseas Chinese History Studies] 1:18-29.
  156. ______. 2007. Kuaguo zhuyi de yimin yanjiu, ou mei xuezhe de guandian he gongxian 跨国主义的移民研究,欧美学者的观点和贡献 [Transnationalism and Migration Studies : An Introduction to the European and American Scholarship]. Huaqiao huaren lishi yanjiu 华侨华人历史研究 [Overseas Chinese History Studies] 4:64-72.
  157. Xu Guangyi 许光毅. 1984. Datong yue hui 大同乐会 [Datong Music Society]. Yinyue yanjiu音乐研究 [Music research] 4:114.
  158. Yang, Mu. 1991. Chinese music in Australia: Report on research and concert activities. CHIME Journal 4 (Autumn):66-71.
  159. Yong, Bell. 1993. Chinese Music Research in the US—A Research Strategy. Association for Chinese music research (ACMR) newsletter 6 (1): 16-21.
  160. Yu Jiafang 余甲方. 2006. Zhongguo jindai yinyue shi 中国近代音乐史 [History of modern Chinese music]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe 上海:上海人民出版社.
  161. Yu Qingxing 于庆新. 2007. Shi nian guanxian zhonghua qing: He riben huayuetuan chengli shi zhou nian 十年管弦中华情:贺日本华乐团成立十周年 [Ten years of orchestral Chinese sentiment: Celebrating the 10 year anniversary of the Chinese orchestra of Japan]. Renmen yinyue: Pinglun 5 人民音乐:评论5.
  162. Yu Shaohua 余少華. 2003. Cong guoyue dao zhongyue, xianggang zhongyue zai xin shiji de dingwei 從國樂到中樂:香港中樂在新世紀的定位 [From national music to Chinese music: Positioning Hong Kong Chinese music in a new era]. Xinbao信報 (May 1).
  163. Zeng Huiyan 曾慧燕. May 2, 2010. Zhongguo minyue tuan, Beimei chu chu wen 中國民樂團:北美處處聞 [Chinese ensembles: All across North America]. Shijie Zhou Kan世界週刊 [World Journal weekly], 14-20.
  164. Zheng Tisi 郑体思. 1998.Wo guo di yi zhi xin xing zhuanye minzu guanxian yue dui de dansheng yu fazhan 我国第一支新型专业民族管弦乐队的诞生与发展 [The birth and development of the first new type of Chinese orchestra in China]. Huang zhong 黄钟 (武汉音乐学院学报) ( Journal of Wuhan Music Conservatory) 2:47-51.
  165. Zheng Xueren 鄭學仁 (Chang Hok-Yai). 1984. Xiandai Zhongguo minzu guanxian yuedui de yanbian, you wu si yundong zhi jin ri 現代中國民族管弦樂隊的演變----由五四運動至今日 [The historical development of modern Chinese national orchestra ---- From the May-Fourth Movement to now]. Master’s thesis. Xianggang zhongwen daxue, yinyue xi 香港中文大學音樂系 [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Music].
  166. Zhang Weihua. 1994. The musical activities of the Chinese American communities in the San Francisco Bay area: A social and cultural study. PhD diss., Univ. of California, Berkeley.
  167. Zheng, Su de San. 1990. Music and migration: Chinese American traditional music in New York City. World of Music 32 (3): 48-67.
  168. Zheng Su 郑苏. 1993a. Chinese music in America since 1991: Performance, composition, and research. In 中国音乐年鉴 The Annual of Chinese Music 1993, comp. Research Institute of Music of the Chinese Academy of Arts. Shandong, China: Shangdong Youyi Chuban She, 497-511.
  169. _______. 1993b. Immigrant music, transnational discourse: Chinese American music culture in New York City. PhD diss., Wesleyan Univ.
  170. ______. 2001a. Zhongguo yinyue he xifang yinyue, chongxin sikao 20 shiji Zhongguo yinyue siwei zhong de liang ge jiben gainian “中国音乐”和“西方音乐”:重新思考20世纪中国音乐思维中的两个基本概念 [“Chinese music” and “Western music”: Rethinking two fundamental concepts in 20th century Chinese musical thinking]. Renmin yinyue 人民音乐 [People’s Music] 1:30-33.
  171. Zhou Min 周敏and Cai Guoxuan 蔡國萱. 2002. Meiguo huawen meiti de fazhan ji qi dui huaren shequ de yingxiang 美國華文媒體的發展及其對華人社區的影響 [Chinese language media in America and its effect upon ethnic Chinese communities]. In Shehuixue yanjiu社會學研究 [Sociological research] 5:83-97.
  172. Chinese Music Ensemble of New York. 1991. Yin zhong niao 蔭中鳥 [Birds in the woods]. Tim Liu (Liu Xiuting 劉修廷) “Bamboo Flute” and the Chinese Music Ensemble of New York. New York: The Chinese Music Ensemble of New York. (Cassette tape).
  173. Chinese Music Ensemble of New York .1995. Beloved Chinese songs, Zhongguo mingge, min’ge中國名歌、民歌 [Famous Chinese folk songs]. New York, NY: Chesky Records. (Compact disc).
  174. Chinese Music Ensemble of New York. May 10, 1998. Annual Spring Concert. (Compact disc). Unpublished.
  175. Chinese Music Ensemble of New York. May 20, 2001. 40th Anniversary Spring Concert. (Compact disc). Unpublished.
  176. Chinese Music Ensemble of New York. April 8, 2007. Annual Concert. (Compact disc). Unpublished.
  177. Chinese Music Ensemble of New York. April 8, 2007. Annual Concert. (DVD). Unpublished.
  178. Chinese Music Ensemble of New York. November 18, 2007 Community Concert. (DVD). Unpublished.
  179. Chinese Music Ensemble of New York. May 11, 2008. Annual Spring Concert. (DVD). Unpublished.
  180. Chinese Music Society of North America. Release date unknown. Chinese Music Festival. Illinois: Chinese Music Society of North America. (Compact disc).
  181. Kaohsiung City Chinese Orchestra 高雄市立國樂團 (Gaoxiong Shili Guoyuetuan). 1993. Instrumental guide to the Chinese orchestra: Chinese orchestra works 管絃絲竹知多少 (Guanxian sizhu zhi duoshao). Taiwan: HUGO Productions (HK). Conducted by Kwan Nai-chung. (Compact disc).
  182. Singapore Chinese Orchestra 新加坡华乐团 [Xinjiapo Huayuetuan]. 2006. Chinese music for all seasons: A novice guide to the Chinese orchestra. Music by Phoon Yew Tien 潘耀田 [Pan Yaotian]. Conducted by Tsung Yeh. Singapore: Xinjiapo Huayuetuan 新加坡华乐团. (Compact disc).
  183. Yale-China Association. 1981. Chinese musical instruments: An introduction. Producer: Su-Ming Clarke; narrator: Kuo-huang Han. Musicians: Siu-Hang Lai, Euphemia Lai, Tsuan-Nien Chang & Kuo-Huang Han.
Times Cited
  1. 朱思婷(2013)。多倫多華人合唱團之研究。臺灣師範大學民族音樂研究所學位論文。2013。1-165。