Title

探討自我解釋對四年級學生閱讀不同表徵之學習教材的影響-以國小「繁殖」概念為例

Authors

覃湘晴

Key Words

自我解釋 ; 認知負荷 ; 繁殖概念 ; 概念改變 ; self-explanation ; cognitive load ; reproduction concept ; concetual change

PublicationName

臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2005年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

邱美虹 博士

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

摘 要 許多的研究均指出自我解釋有助於學習(Chi et al., 1989, 1991, 1994),因此有些學者發現圖表或圖解具有促進自我解釋的功效( Ainsworth & Loizou, 2003; Cox, 1999),但亦有學者持相反意見(Wilkin, 1997);再者在教材中加入了輔助的圖表或圖解後,是否對學習者產生過多的認知負荷而不利學習亦是研究者想探討的問題;因此本研究以自我解釋的方式閱讀不同表徵的教材,以探討各組的學習表現、自我解釋數量、自我解釋類型的數量分佈、自我解釋的型態、在閱讀時所感知到的認知負荷並探知各組概念改變的情形及對自我解釋的態度。 研究對象為國小四年級中等程度的學生32名,隨機、平均分配至文組、格文組、圖文組、圖格文組共四組進行研究。閱讀過程中以自我解釋的方式學習,並於前測、後測結束後晤談以瞭解受試者的迷思概念及概念改變情形。研究結果如下: 1.各組學習表現:以圖文組表現最佳,之後依序為圖格文組、格文組、文組。 2.自我解釋數量:圖文組自我解釋量為數最多,再來是圖格文組、格文組、文組,且學習表現和自我解釋數量為顯著正相關。 3.自我解釋類型分佈:含有圖片的組別在「情境精緻的自我解釋」比無圖片的組別來得多;含有表格的組別在「講述摘要或大意的自我解釋」比無表格之組別來得多。 4.自我解釋的型態:格文組、圖文組各有5類,圖格文組有6類,其中的共同點為:若受試者有交互參看不同表徵而自我解釋者,在學習表現及自我解釋數量上會表現得較好。 5.各組的認知負荷:圖文組的認知負荷最低,文組的認知負荷最高,且認知負荷和學習表現為顯著負相關。 6.迷思概念與概念改變的情形:在動物和植物的繁殖概念中共同迷思概念為「學生易將繁殖和生長混淆」,且迷思概念主要成因為動、植物之外形、字義上的錯誤學習、日常生活經驗、直覺式的判斷;在概念改變方面,受試者較難產生概念改變的亦為上述這些成因之下的迷思概念。 7.對自我解釋的態度:圖文組和圖格文組「對自我解釋的接納度」及「自我解釋的學習功效」有較高的正向支持率,反之格文組、文組則無。

English Abstract

Abstract Many researches have been demonstrated that self-explaining is an effective strategy for learners to learn. Some researchers also found that diagrams and pictures can facilitate the self-explanation effect, however, Wilkin (1997) argues that diagrams may inhibit self-explanation effect. Besides, will texts with alternative representations be more cognitive load for learners to learn? So, the purpose of this study is trying to explore students’ performance, cognitive load and conceptual change of the process to study different format of material about reproduction concepts of plants and animals while self-explaining. Participants (thirty-two 4th graders) were randomly assigned to four groups: text group (only texts), table group (with tables and texts), picture group (with pictures and texts), mixed group (with tables, pictures and texts). In the study phase, subjects were asked to generate self-explanations while they were learning and after pre-test and post-test, they were interviewed to let their misconceptions and circumstances of conceptual change to be known. The main results of this study are as follows: 1. Learning outcomes : picture group scored highest than all other groups. 2. Number of self-explanations : students in the picture group generated more self- explanations than all other groups and students who generated a greater number of self-explanations performed better at learning performance. 3. Kinds of self-explanations : groups with pictures were generated more” elaborate situation self-explanations” than groups without pictures; groups with tables were generated more” summary self-explanations” than groups without tables. 4. Types of self-explanations : both table group and picture group have 5 types while mixed group has 6 types. The point in common is that students self-explaining with reading different representations will perform better in learning outcomes and generate more self-explanations. 5. Cognitive load : the cognitive load of picture group is lowest while text group is highest and there is a significantly negative relation between cognitive load and performances. 6. Misconceptions and conceptual change : the common misconception of the reproduction concepts of plants and animals is that students tend to think “reproduction” as “growing” and the main sources of misconceptions are the shape of plants and animals, misunderstanding of words, life experience and intuition. As for conceptual change, that is hard for students to change is the misconceptions which from the sources mentioned above. 7. Attitudes toward self explanations : picture group and mixed group had the most positive attitude to the acceptance and learning effects of self- explanations, in other way, table group and text group hadn’t.

Topic Category 理學院 > 科學教育研究所
社會科學 > 教育學
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