Effects of Weight Training on Physical Self and Mood in Female College Students

Translated Titles





盧俊宏(Jing-Horng Lu)

Key Words

重量訓練 ; 健身運動 ; 身體自我概念 ; 心情 ; Weight Training ; Exercise ; Physical Self ; Mood



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

3期(2003 / 11 / 01)

Page #

111 - 125

Content Language


Chinese Abstract

本研究之目的在探討重量訓練對大學女生身體自我概念和心情變化的影響。本研究以以召募方式邀請87位大學女生為研究對象(平均年齡20.6±1.97歲);其中42位大學女生做實驗組成員,並以Baechle and Groves(1998)重量訓練處方進行十週(每週三次)重量訓練。本研究另隨機抽樣同樣母群之大學女生45人做為對照組;對照組從事平常上課、休閒和課外活動為主,不接受任何有計劃性之重量訓練。所有受試者(實驗組和對照組)在實驗前後皆接受心理測驗(包括身體自我概念量表(PSDQ, Marsh, Richards, Johnson, Roche, & Tremayne, 1994)和盤斯量表(POMS, Grove & Prapavessis, 1992));以及生理測驗(包括肌力測量和體魯肪厚度測驗)。實驗資料以單因子變異數(組別×心理因素×生理測驗)和單因子共變數分析(ANCOVA)比較實驗組和對照組在十週重量訓練後時與生理方面的差異。研究結果發現實驗組在十週重量訓練後比對照組在身體自我概念的肌力、整體身體自我概念和心情量表的活力較高,但心情量表的沮喪和疲勞分數較低;至於生理方面則發現實驗組的上肢推舉、引體、蹲舉、仰共起坐等肌力比對照組高;但總體脂肪厚度以及腰臀圍比例則比對照組低。本研究結果雖大部份支持有關重量訓練雖可以改善身體自我概念和心情之研究(如Alfermann and Stoll, 2000; Berger , 1996;Fox, 2000;Melnick & Mookerjee, 1991;Sonstroem, 1998; Tucker, 1983;Tucker & Maxwell, 1992),以及提高身體肌力和減低體脂肪厚度;但認為欲全面性改善身體自我概念和心情之所有因素,只有重量訓練過程完整且時間很長下,才能得到更好之效果。

English Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which participation in a weight training program intervention was associated with the changes on physical self and mood in female college students compare to non-weight trainers. A total of 87 female college students, experimental group of 42and comparison group of 45, with mean age of 20.6 years (SD= 1.97) participated in this study. The experimental subjects participated in a 10-weeks, three-days-per-week weight training intervention by Baechle and Groves’s (1998) protocol, while participants in the comparison group only did regular college activities. Participants were pre- and post- tested on the Physical Self Description Questionnaire (PSDQ, Marsh, Richards, Johnson, Roche, & Tremayne, 1994) and the abbreviated Profile of Mood State (POMS, Grove & Prapavessis, 1992) as well as a battery of strength and skinfold test. With pre-tested scores controlled, the weight trainers had significantly higher on physical self (especially the perception of strength and global physical self) and better mood (especially higher vigor and lower fatigue and depression) than non-weight trainers. Weight trainers also showed significant increase in strength (including push-up, pull-up, squat press, sit-up and lean body weight) and decrease in skinfold thickness and rest heart rate. In general, this study support previous research that weight training improve physical self and mood such as Alfermann and Stoll (2000), Berger (1996), Fox (2000), Melnick and Mookerjee (1991), Sonstroem (1998), Tucker (1983), Tucker and Maxwell(1992). However, this study suggested that the effects of weight training did not warrant to the changes of all factors of physical self and mood because the limitation in the length of the intervention program.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 心理學
社會科學 > 體育學
  1. Alfermann, D.,Stoll, O.(2000).Effects of physical exercise on self-concept and well-being.International Journal of Sport Psychology,30,47-65.
  2. Baechle, T. R.,Groves, B. R.(1998).Weight training: Steps to success activity series.Champaign, IL:Human Kinetics.
  3. Barker, W. T.(1985).University of San Francisco.
  4. Berger, B. G.(1996).Psychological benefits of an active lifestyle: What we know and what we need to know.Quest,48,330-353.
  5. Berger, B. G.,McInman, A.,R. N. Singer,M. Murphey,L. K. Tennant (Eds.)(1993).Handbook of research on sport psychology.New York:Macmillan.
  6. Berger, B. G.,Owen, D. R.(1988).Stress reduction and mood enhancement in four exercise modes: Swimming, body conditioning, Hatha yoga, and fencing.Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,59,148-159.
  7. Bogdan, R. C.,Bilken, S. K.(1992).Qualitative research for education.Boeten:Ally and Bacon.
  8. Bouchard, D. D.,Shepard, R. J.,Stephens, T.,Sutton, J. R.,McPherson, D. B.(1990).Exercise, fitness and health.Champaign, IL:Human Kinetics.
  9. Boutcher, S. H.,R. N. Singer,M. Murphey,L. K. Tennant (Eds.)(1993).Handbook of research on sport psychology.New York:Macmillan.
  10. Brown, R.,Harrison, J.(1986).The effects of a strength training program on the strength and self concept of two female age groups.Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,57,315-320.
  11. Chang, Y. C.,Lu, J. H.(2001).The revision of Chinese Profile of Mood State: Validity and reliability.Bulletin of University Physical Education of Republic of China, Taiwan,3(2),47-57.
  12. Dishman, R. K.,V. Seefeld (Ed.)(1986).Physical activity and well-being.Reston, VA:American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance.
  13. Fox, K. R.(2000).Self-esteem, self-perceptions and exercise.International Journal of Sport Psychology,31,228-240.
  14. Fox, K. R.,Corbin, C. B.(1989).The physical self-perception profile: Development and preliminary validation.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology,11,408-430.
  15. Gauvin, L.,Spence, J. C.,Anderson, S.,J. M. Rippe (Ed.)(1999).Textbook of medicine, exercise, nutrition and health.Malden, MA:Blackwell.
  16. Grove, J. M.,Prapavessis, H.(1992).Preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of an abbreviated profile of mood states.International Journal of Sport Psychology,23,93-109.
  17. Harter, S.(1988).Manual for the self perception profile for adolescents.Denver, CO:University of Denver.
  18. Holloway, J.,Beuter, A.,Duda, J.(1988).Self-efficacy and training for strength in adolescent girls.Journal of Applied Social Psychology,18,699-719.
  19. Irvine, J.(1984).Kalamazoo,Western Michigan University.
  20. Marsh, H. W.,Richards, G. E.,Johnson, S.,Roche, L.,Temayne, P.(1994).Physical Self Description Questionnaire: Psychometric properties and multitrait-multimethod analysis of relations to existing instruments.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology,16,270-305.
  21. McInman, A. D.,Berger, B. G.(1993).Self concept and mood changes associated with aerobic dance.Australian Journal of Psychology,45,134-140.
  22. Melnick, M. J.,Mookerjee, S.(1991).Effects of advanced weight training on body-cathexis and self-esteem.Perceptual and Motor Skills,72,1335-1345.
  23. Mihalko, S. L.,McAuley, E.(1996).Strength training effects on subjective well-being and physical functioning in the elderly.Journal of Aging and Physical Activity,4,56-68.
  24. Morgan, W. P.(1985).Affective beneficence of vigorous physical activity.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,17,94-101.
  25. Morgan, W. P.(1979).Negative addition in runners.The Physician and Sports Medicine,7(2),57-70.
  26. Morgan, W. P.(1996).Physical fitness and emotional health: A review.American Corretional Therapy Journal,23,124-127.
  27. Myers, D.(1996).Social psychology.New York:McGraw Hill.
  28. North, T. C.,McCullagh, P.,Tran, Z. V.(1990).Effect of exercise on depression.Exercise and Sport Science reviews,18,379-415.
  29. Petruzzello, S. J.,Landers, D. M.,Hatfield, R. D.,Kubitz, K. A.,Salazar, W.(1991).A meta-analysis of the anxiety reducing effects of acute and chronic exercise.Sports Medicine,11,143-182.
  30. Sonstroem, R. J.(1998).Physical self-concept: Assessment and external validity.Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews,28,133-164.
  31. Sonstroem, R.,Potts, S. A.(1996).Life adjustment correlates of physical self-concepts.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,28,619-625.
  32. Steptoe, A.,Cox, S.(1988).Acute effects of aerobic exercise on mood.Health Psychology,7,329-340.
  33. Tucker, L.(1983).Muscular training and mental health.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,45,1355-1360.
  34. Tucker, L.,Maxwell, K.(1992).Effects of weight training on the emotional well-being and body image of females: Predictors of greatest benefits.American Journal of Health Promotion,6(5),338-344.
  35. Willis, J. D.,Campell(1992).Exercise psychology.Champaign, IL:Human Kinetics.
  36. Yeh, S. R.(1998).Taiwan,National College of Physical Education and Sports.
Times Cited
  1. 陳美華(2005)。有氧舞蹈對大學女生身體自我概念及自尊之影響暨其因果模式之驗證。臺灣師範大學體育學系學位論文。2005。1-0。