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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 33 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王文中 吳齊殷(2003),〈縱貫性研究中度量化的一些議題:以症狀檢核表SCL-90-R為例〉,《中華心理衛生學刊》16(3):1-30。
  2. 張苙雲(2003),〈台灣教育長期追蹤資料庫資料使用手冊),中央研究院調查研究專題中心學術調查研究資料庫。
  3. 張景媛(1997),〈國中生之正負向情緒與其後設認知、學習動機關係之研究〉,《國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系教育心理學報》29:51-76。
  4. 張瀞云(2011),〈台灣的大學聯考和補習風氣:擴充大學招生名額與低學費政策對社會流動的影響〉,《人文及社會科學集刊》23(3):311-339。
  5. 莊奕琦 陳晏羚(2011),〈紈袴子弟與流氓教授:台灣的教育與階級流動〉,《人文及社會科學集刊》23(1):61-91。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳佩君(2014)。嘉義縣市國中學生性別分化類型與科學學習興趣關係之研究。中正大學教育學研究所學位論文。2014。1-192。
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