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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 193 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁玉珍,2015,《政府協助非營利組織朝向社會企業發展之角色探討》,台北:臺灣大學政治學系碩士論文。
  2. 王仕圖、官有垣、林家緯、張翠予,2010,〈工作整合型社會企業的角色與功能-台灣與香港的比較分析〉,《人文社會科學研究》,4(2):106-130。 
  3. 王娟嬑、夏侯欣鵬、胡哲生、蔡淑梨,2011,〈營利事業經營社會企業之初探〉, 《創業管理研究 》,6(1):29-54。
  4. 李素素,2009,《台灣社會企業發展之政治經濟分析,1987-2008》,南投:暨南國際大學公共行政與政策學系碩士學位論文。
  5. 吳明珠,2011,《庇護工場轉型社會企業之可行性研究》,台北:臺灣師範大學社會教育與文化行政在職專班碩士學位論文。
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