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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 88 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王冠智(2001)。使用者資訊需求與公共圖書館參考資訊服務關係之探討。台北市立圖書館館訊,19(2),62-69。
  2. 行政院衛生署國民健康局(2007)。成功老化手冊。上網日期:2011年,4月3日。檢自:
  3. 郭昱均、高淑貴(2003)。高雄市長青學苑高齡者生活型態與學習需求之研究。農業推廣學報,20,57-80。
  4. 楊誠恕(2004)。岡山地區軍人健康資訊需求與就醫選擇之研究。未出版之碩士論文,高雄醫學大學公共衛生學研究所碩士在職專班,高雄市。
  5. 葉乃靜(2003)。Sars流行期間民眾健康資訊行為研究。圖書資訊學刊,1(2),95-110。
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