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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 80 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳育仁(2011)。〈美國工會承認之法律政策-陷入制度性困境?〉,《臺灣民主季刊》,8卷1期,頁133-176。
  2. 洪明賢(2009)。《論勞動法上之團體協商義務—我國法與日本法之比較研究》,國立臺灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文。
  3. Bowman, D. O. (1942). Public control of labor relations, a study of the National labor relations board. New York: The Macmillan company.
  4. Chamberlain, N. W., & Kuhn, J. W. (1965). Collective bargaining (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  5. Gross, J. A. (1974). The making of the National Labor Relations Board a study in economics, politics, and the law. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. Retrieved from
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 黃麗竹(2015)。美國勞動法上義務團體協商事項範圍劃定之研究—兼論對我國法之啟示。臺灣大學科際整合法律學研究所學位論文。2015。1-223。 
  2. 王之穎(2015)。美國團體協商法制公平代理義務之研究。臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2015。1-126。
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