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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 69 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. 李宗諺,台灣地區行動支付與小額支付的現況與未來展望研究分析,元智大學,資訊管理研究所碩士論文,2005年。
  2. 2. 郭戎晉,替代性紛爭解決機制于電子商務之運用與法制發展,中原大學,財經法律學系碩士論文,2008年1月。
  3. 8. 鄭菀瓊,「科技化創新金融服務規範研析-以行動支付和第三方支付為例」,科技法律透析,第20卷第3期,2008年3月15日,頁61。
  4. 9. 繆嘉新,官有富,李健銘,陳建仲,江衍旭,陳俊柏,「NFC服務共享平台TSM」,資訊安全通訊,第18 卷,第 2 期,2012 年04 月 01日,頁202。
  5. 5. 行政院消費者保護會網站,
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