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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 90 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李素芬(2009)。憂鬱症團體領導者心理位移之經驗及影響分析研究。(未出版之博士論文)。台灣師範大學,臺北市。
  2. 李非、金樹人(2016)。心理位移日記書寫詞語結構與內涵之話語分析。教育心理學報,47(3),305-327。
  3. 周嘉娸(2008)。憂鬱反芻對工作記憶容量的影響之初探(未出版之碩士論文)。台灣大學,臺北市。
  4. 金樹人(2010)。心理位移之結構特性及其辯證現象之分析:自我多重面向的敘寫與敘說。中華輔導與諮商學報,28,187-228。
  5. 涂珮瓊、許文耀(2008)。反芻的多向度對大學生負向情緒變化之影響。中華心理學刊,50(3),271-287。
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