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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 69 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳瓊恩(2006),《行政學》。臺北:三民。
  2. 李嵩賢(2002),〈培訓機構之經營與管理〉,載於國家文官訓練所編,《T&D飛訓論文集粹第1輯》。臺北,國家文官訓練,頁87-130。
  3. 常如玉(2004),《公營金融事業機構組織變遷之研究─以臺北銀行為例》,台灣師範大學政治研究所博士論文。
  4. 陳文樟(2003),〈港務局組織變革之探討—以高雄港為例〉。載於中國地方自治學會編,《中國地方自治第56卷第9期》。頁26-P37。
  5. 謝俊義(1998),《新制度經濟學對當代行政改革之啟示》。臺北:國立政治大學公共行政學系碩士論文。
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