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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 83 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Barbour, Rosaline. Doing focusing groups. 張可婷譯。焦點團體研究法。臺北縣永和市:韋伯文化國際,2010。
  2. Krueger, R.A. and M.A. Casey. Focus groups : a practical guide for applied research, 洪志成、廖梅花譯(台北市:濤石,2003。
  3. 王梅玲。「電子期刊網路服務與評鑑模式之研究」。圖書資訊學研究 3卷,1期 (2008):94。
  4. 周文明、何思慧。「心情小品文電子書製作」。資訊傳播學報-數位內容創製2010期(2011):15-19.
  5. 林素卿。「協同行動研究--以班級經營之常規改善為例」。師大學報48卷,1期(2003):89-109。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳美聖(2014)。應用維基協作系統於在地文化數位典藏:以淡水為例。淡江大學資訊與圖書館學系碩士班學位論文。2014。1-101。 
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