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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 116 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳政己、詹智傑(2005)。國中資訊組長工作現況調查。中等教育,56(2),4-17。
  2. 吳清山(1998)。學校效能研究。台北:五南。
  3. 宋玲蘭和林溥鈞譯(2001)。當代管理學。G.R.Jones, J.M.George, & C.W.L.Hill原著。台北:麥格羅.希爾國際股份有限公司。
  4. 沃文豪(2007)。國小教師之科學教學自我效能與科學教學行為相關研究(未出版碩士論文)。國立臺北教育大學,台北。
  5. 林育賢(2008)。國小特教班教師自我效能與教學效能關係之研究(未出版碩士論文)。國立臺東師範大學,臺東。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 蕭至亨(2013)。嘉義市國民小學教師知覺學校組織氣氛與終身學習態度之關係。中正大學教學專業發展數位學習碩士在職專班學位論文。2013。1-142。
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