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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 44 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [1] 王天津、劉素苓(2004),「應用模糊多準則決策於入口網站服務績效之研究」,電子商務研究,第二卷第三期,頁235-258。
  2. [10] 李怡之(2003),「科技研究績機構組織績效評估之探討」,研考雙月刊,27卷5期。
  3. [13] 周韻采(2003),電子化政府績效的比較研究:以政府入口網站為例,國立政治大學公共行政學報,第九期。
  4. [17] 張超塵(2003),地理教學網站評鑑指標建構之研究,國立臺灣大學地理環境資源研究所碩士論文。
  5. [19] 高強、黃旭男、Sueyoshi(2003),「管理績效評估:資料包絡分析法」,華泰文化事業股份有限公司。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳怡錡(2009)。中小企業產業群聚網站之評估模式研究。臺北科技大學商業自動化與管理研究所學位論文。2009。1-153。 
  2. 李峰政(2007)。網站KPI之流程建置_以某非營利網站為例。政治大學管理碩士學程(AMBA)學位論文。2007。1-58。
  3. 林光前(2009)。產業別電子商務營運計畫現況分析與研究-以休閒產業為例。元智大學資訊管理學系學位論文。2009。1-100。
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