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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 159 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳奐妤(2009)。台灣百年老店經營之關鍵成功因素。台北科技大學商業自動化與管理研究所,台北市。
  2. 張有恆(1998)。運輸計畫評估與決策─模糊理論之探討與應用。台北市:華泰文化事業股份有限公司。
  3. 張育甄(2009)。百年風光-老餅店品牌形象經營研究與設計。朝陽科技大學設計研究所,台中市。
  4. 黃汝(2004)。臺灣百年老店接班人生涯發展歷程之敘說分析─以老雪花齋為例。台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所,台北市。
  5. 黃致維(2009)。百年老店企業存續的關鍵原因—以湯波半、祿記包子為例。政治大學科技管理研究所,台北市。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張凱登(2016)。微型企業網路創業關鍵成功因素。臺灣大學工業工程學研究所學位論文。2016。1-80。 
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