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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 169 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [21]張瑋倫,顧客關係管理-理論與實務,二版,台北:學貫行銷,2008。
  2. [39]蔡樸,化妝品產業分析,2007。
  3. [49]A. D. Shocker and R. K. Srivastava, "Challenges and Opportunities Facing Brand Management: An Introduction to The Special Issue," Journal of Marketing Research, vol.31, no.2, 1995, pp.149-158.
  4. [50]A. Kirmani and A. K. Rao, "No Pain, No Gain:A Critical Review of the Literature on Signaling Unobservable Product Quality," Journal of Marketing, vol.64, 2000, pp.66-79.
  5. [51]A. Parasuraman, V. A. Zeithaml and A. Malhotra, "E-S-QUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Assessing Electronic Service Quality," Journal of Service Research, vol.7, no.3, 2005, pp.213-233.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 謝佳璋(2016)。行銷策略塑造品牌價值之探討 -以台中L建設公司為例。逢甲大學建築學系學位論文。2016。1-226。 
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