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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 61 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 8. 馬祖琳,陳蓓微,陳淑華,蘇怡萍,謝惠如(2000),「課後托育機構服務內容之個案研究」,《醫護科技學刊》,第1卷第2期,1~11。
  2. 27. 鍾榮中(2003),「幼教服務市場消費者行為之研究」,大葉大學。
  3. 28. 顏千淑(2005),「台中市雙生涯家庭國小子女課後托育服務安排與影響之研究」,未出版碩士論文,靜宜大學青少年兒童福利研究所。
  4. 32. 鄭芬蘭(2001),「課後托育學童快樂情緒模式之驗證」,《屏東師院學報》,第15期,231~ 258。
  5. 37. Child Welfare League of America (1992), Standards of Excellence for Child Day Care Service, Washington D. C: Child Welfare League of America.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張孝如(2015)。台灣新藥開發T公司個案研究:開放式創新商業模式視角。中央大學產業經濟研究所學位論文。2015。1-81。
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