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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 126 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳瓊恩(1996)。《行政學》。台北:三民書局。
  2. 呂朝賢(2008)。〈集集地震中志願服務初探〉。《台大社工學刊》,17期,頁131-168。
  3. 李芝菡(2006)。〈宗教進入異文化的隱藏,稀釋與更新:以創價學會及統一教會在美國為例〉。《新世紀宗教研究》,5(1),頁65-95。
  4. 李曉婷(2009)。《志工休閒參與心理健康關係之研究》。國立中興大學生物產業推廣暨經營學研究所碩士論文。
  5. 沈進成、趙家民、張義立、曾慈慧(2007)。〈志工認真性休閒涉入、阻礙、效益與承諾影響關係之研究:以福智教育園區爲例〉。《運動與遊憩研究》,2(1),頁19-43。
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