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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 153 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳秉恩、游淑萍、蔣其霖(民91)。台灣企業人力資源管理運作及其關係初探。人力資源管理學報,2(2),37-64。
  2. 何淑熏、柯盈吟、黃瓊慧(民96)。從網路銀行自助服務探討創新對顧客價值之影響,電子商務研究,2007年冬季,第五卷,第四期,頁463-484。
  3. 吳偉文(民98)。服務科學與服務創新策略。東亞論壇季刊(EAST-ASIA REVIEW) No.463 2009.03。
  4. 周鼎鈞(民94)。顧客知覺價值、滿意度、忠誠度與轉換成本間的關係之研究,淡江大學管理科學研究所碩士班碩士論文。
  5. 洪榮臨(民99)。以服務創新的觀點來探討品牌形象與顧客忠誠度的關聯性之研究-以休閒運動用品產業為例。長榮大學高階管理碩士在職專班碩士論文。
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