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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 147 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王秀槐、黃金俊(2010)。〈擇其所愛、愛其所擇從自我決定理論看大學多元入學制度中學生的科系選擇與學習成果〉。《教育科學研究期刊》,55(2),1-27。
  2. 史托茲( Paul G. Stoltz.,1997)。《AQ逆境商數》。(Adversity Quotient : Turming Obstacles into Opportunities,莊安祺譯)。台北:時報文化。
  3. 李淑玲(2003)。〈我國大學運動代表隊學生挫折經驗、挫折忍受力及失敗反應關係之研究〉。《中華技術學院學報》。26,401-424。
  4. 李淑玲(2004)。〈從建設性失敗理論探討如何提升運動員的心理素質〉。《中華技術學院學報》。30,49-56。
  5. 李新民、陳密桃(2009)。〈大學生感恩學習介入方案成效分析:拓延建構理論假設的考驗〉。《課程與教學季刊》,12(2),107-134。
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