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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 84 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 【4】 Mark I Johnson, “Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) and TENS-like devices: do they provide pain relief ?”, Pain Reviews, 8:pp121–158;2001.
  2. 【23】 Didrik Sopler C.A.,”Effect of Cranial Laser Acupuncture on Muscle Strength in healthy individuals” Am J Acupunt ,12(2) : pp117-124;1984.
  3. 【25】 Milne S, Welch V, Brosseau L, Saginur M, Shea B, Tugwell P, Wells G. ”Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic low back pain (Cochrane Review)” Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2003.
  4. 【27】 McGill. “TENS (Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation)”, January 22nd, 2002.
  5. 【35】 許晉銘, 電針在腦幹中風後吞嚥困難之治療經驗, 中華復健雜誌, vol.23,No1,1995。
Times Cited (15) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉建志(2012)。調控室內音響環境對人體反應影響之研究。成功大學建築學系學位論文。2012。1-200。 
  2. 林婉容(2014)。月經週期與心率變異度及經絡能量關係之研究。中國醫藥大學中醫學系碩士班學位論文。2014。1-63。 
  3. 李昭德(2009)。經絡電位傳導運用於急性輸尿管結石病患之前瞻性研究。中國醫藥大學中西醫結合研究所碩士班學位論文。2009。1-43。 
  4. 杜惠娟(2006)。耳穴按壓對心率變異性之成效探討。中國醫藥大學護理學系碩士班學位論文。2006。1-71。 
  5. 李曜暄(2006)。時間、年齡及針刺、艾灸、冰刺激足三里穴對良導絡值變化之探討。中國醫藥大學中西醫結合研究所碩士班學位論文。2006。1-71。 
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