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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 113 ) 〈TOP〉
  1.   版)。台北:師大書苑。(McMillan, J. H. & Schumacher,
  2.   檢索日期:2009年10月15日。網址:
  3.   (Patton, M. Q.,1990)
  4. 吳孟玲與江達隆(2005)。組織不當行為影響因素之探討-以服務業
  5. 汪美伶與鄭雯憶(2007)。組織支持與服務導向組織公民行為-服務
Times Cited (7) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉韋伶(2014)。領導風格對餐廳服務破壞行為之影響。高雄餐旅學院餐飲管理研究所學位論文。2014。1-100。 
  2. 鄭筠瑄(2013)。萃取餐廳服務破壞行為構面。高雄餐旅學院餐飲管理研究所學位論文。2013。1-69。 
  3. 曾繽卉(2013)。國際觀光旅館餐廳主管觀點探討服務失誤與過度服務。高雄餐旅學院餐飲管理研究所在職專班學位論文。2013。1-47。 
  4. 吳亭瑢(2015)。顧客負面行為對員工工作態度的影響。屏東科技大學企業管理系所學位論文。2015。1-60。 
  5. 張旭永(2011)。以管理者角度探討餐服人員服務破壞行為。高雄餐旅學院餐飲管理研究所在職專班學位論文。2011。1-49。
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