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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 134 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 朱志宏(1998),《我國立法院效率機制之研究》,台北:中國國民黨中央委員會政策研究工作會。
  2. 林正斌(2005),《我國政黨黨團組織運作研究-以2000至2004立法院民主進步黨黨團為例》,臺灣師範大學政治學研究所碩士論文,未出版。
  3. 侯世傑(2002),《我國國會黨團協商機制之研究-以立法院第二屆至第五屆第二會期為例》,臺灣師範大學政治學研究所碩士論文,未出版。
  4. 唐文慧、葉書毓(2006),〈國民年金及勞退新制立法過程之比較-政體中心的觀點〉,《研究台灣》,創刊號,頁59-107。
  5. 盛杏湲(2001),〈立法委員正式與非正式立法參與之研究-以第三屆立法委員為例〉,《問題與研究》,40(5),頁81-103。
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