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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 111 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林君徽(2006)。國小高年級學童間接攻擊與自我概念之探究。國立台灣師範大學人類發展與家庭學系研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
  2. 侯雅齡(1998)。國小兒童自我概念量表編制及其相關因素研究。國立高雄大學輔導研究所碩士論文,未出版,高雄市。
  3. 洪秀梅(2007)。台南縣國小高年級學童父母管教方式、情緒覺察能力、自我概念對人際關係之影響。台南科技大學生活應用科學研究所未出版之碩士論文。
  4. 張淑美(2006b)。師資培育階段「生命教育」課程之實施與省思。載於張淑美,「生命教育」研究、論述與實踐-生死教育取向(頁199-205)。高雄:復文圖書出版社。
  5. 張淑美(2006c)。台灣地區生命教育相關碩博士論文之分析-研究現況與發展。載於張淑美,「生命教育」研究、論述與實踐-生死教育取向(頁51-90)。高雄:復文圖書出版社。
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