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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 118 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. cooperation networks,” Innovation networks:spatial perspective, London:
  2. Cooke, P. (1998) “Regional systems of innovation:an evolutionary perspective,”
  3. Environment and Planning A 30: 1563-1584.
  4. Cooke, P. ( 2002) Knowledge economics: clusters, learning, and cooperative
  5. Castells, M. (1989)The informational city: information technology, economic
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 黃靖雯(2014)。有「酒」食,先生「釀」? 研究單位在台灣水果酒業技術發展中的角色。臺灣大學建築與城鄉研究所學位論文。2014。1-105。 
  2. 陳亞雲(2011)。燕巢番石榴產業的地方形塑與發展。臺灣師範大學地理學系學位論文。2011。1-139。
  3. 曹建文(2012)。農民農業知識分享與移轉:一個農業產銷班之個案研究。中正大學成人及繼續教育學系學位論文。2012。1-206。
  4. 白溪河(2013)。「農業用地興建農舍辦法」修正條文草案對農地價格的影響。中興大學應用經濟學系所學位論文。2013。1-51。
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