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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 422 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 15. 林紀東,中華民國憲法逐條釋義(四),三民,1998年修訂8版。
  2. 1. 王志嘉,評臺灣高等法院96年度上易字第2020號「強制罪」刑事判決—兼論 病人生命身體法益的處分與醫師緊急救治義務,月旦法學雜誌,第174期, 頁298-320,2009 年11月。
  3. 2. 王志嘉、羅慶徽,病人生命身體法益的處分-兼論死亡協助與刑事責任,安寧 療護雜誌,第15卷,第1期,頁63-80,2010年。
  4. 4. 王祖寵,醫師之民事過失責任,法令月刊,第21卷,第1期,頁6-10,1970 年1月。
  5. 17. 李震山,從生命權與自決權之關係論生前預囑與安寧照護之法律問題,國立 中正大學法學集刊,第2期,頁339-341,1999年7月。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 唐子堯(2017)。論病人自主權於我國法之體現與刑事爭議。臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2017。1-198。 
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