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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 95 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王克陸、彭雅惠,2004,應用隨機前緣成本法於台灣農會信用部之效率評估研究,台灣管理學刊,4卷,1 期,43-58。
  2. 吳青俊,1989,台灣地區紡織業上市公司經營績效之評估,碩士論文,淡江大學管理科學研究所。
  3. 吳庭祥,2005,台灣農會信用部經營效率之研究,碩士論文,臺中健康暨管理學院經營管理研究所。
  4. 李智隆,2001,中華電信市內電話經營效率與影響因子分析」,碩士論文,東海大學管理研究所。
  5. 邱湧忠,1999,新世紀農業推廣的角色與地位,台南區農業專訊,27 期,p.1~3。
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 黃揚閔(2012)。台灣線上遊戲產業經營績效評估模式之建立 – 灰關聯分析法之應用。長榮大學國際企業學系(所)學位論文。2012。1-88。 
  2. 楊玲珠(2011)。鄉村型農會經營策略之個案研究 -以彰化縣線西鄉農會為例。臺灣大學農業經濟學研究所學位論文。2011。1-84。 
  3. 廖岳峰(2012)。管線工程3D設計軟體之評選。虎尾科技大學工業工程與管理研究所學位論文。2012。1-62。
  4. 劉任登(2013)。應用層級分析及灰關聯評選自動光學檢測供應商-以U公司個案為例。虎尾科技大學工業工程與管理研究所學位論文。2013。1-52。
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