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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 93 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王斐青、尚瑞國(2004),利潤中心制度與臺灣地區國際觀光旅館經營效率:DEA方法之應用」,企業管理學報,第61期,第99-120頁。
  2. 王斐青、洪維廷、尚瑞國(2005),臺灣地區國際觀光旅館產業生產力變動之研究,亞太經濟管理評論,第九卷,第一期。
  3. 王緒鴻(2006),探討國際觀光旅館之經營績效-結合平衡計分卡及資料包絡分析法,國立高雄餐旅學院旅遊管理研究所碩士論文。
  4. 張德儀、黃旭男(2006),台灣地區國際觀光旅館績效評估之研究-灰色關聯分析與資料包絡分析法應用之比較,觀光研究學報,12卷第1期,67-90頁。
  5. 陳明哲(2003),平衡計分卡應用於警務機關之績效評估,中原大學工業工程學系碩士論文。
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