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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 106 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁一顧(2009)。區分化教師評鑑及對我國教師專業發展評鑑的啟示。中等教育,6(2),8-19。
  2. 朱雲祥(2004)。運用平衡計分卡從事民間博物館組織績效評估---以順益台灣原住民博物館為例(未出版碩士論文)。國立台灣大學商學研究所,台北市。
  3. 吳松齡(2003)。休閒產業經營管理。台北市:揚智文化。
  4. 李安明、陳怡安、謝琬琪(2012)。校長專業發展工作坊評鑑指標-以平衡計分卡概念建構。嘉大教育研究學刊,29,1-25。
  5. 周育如(2014)。尋找幼教就業新藍海:帶領學生探究幼教產業之教學行動研究。新竹教育大學教育學報,31(2),1-32。
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