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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 40 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳崇旗、王偉琴、邱馨凰(2009)。登山健行者早期戶外經驗與環境態度之關係。大專體育學刊,12(1),21-29頁。
  2. 吳崇旗、陳郁璿(2010)。兩天一夜無痕山林(LNT)種子教師訓練課程對環境態度之影響。運動休閒餐旅研究,5(3),22-35。
  3. 吳崇旗、巫昌陽、王偉琴(2012)。登山健行者遊憩專門化與管理策略支持之關係。臺灣體育運動管理學報,12(2), 149-176。
  4. 張春興(1989)。張式心理學辭典。臺北市:東華。
  5. 歐雙磐(2005)。登山者遊憩專門化程度、情境偏好與場所依戀關係之研究。未出版之碩士論文,東海大學,臺中市。
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