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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 128 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 3.康龍魁(1993),追求另一張技職文憑:淺談商業類職業證照制度之現況與展望。技術及職業教育雙月刊,17,13。
  2. 5.職訓局(2011),技能檢定合格發証數。行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局網站, http:/。
  3. 10.簡紅珠(1998):教師教學決定:內涵、思考歷程、與影響因素—兼談如何改進教學決定技能。課程與教學季刊,1998(1)。台北:台灣師大。
  4. 14.楊秀停(1)和王國華(2)(2007), 實施引導式探究教學對於國小學童學習成效之影響。台中縣月眉國小(1).國立彰化師範大學 科學教育研究所(2)。科學教育學刊 Chinese Journal of Science Education2007, 第十五卷第四期, 439-459。
  5. 19.張春興、林清山(1989),教育心理學。台北:東華。張春興(1994):教育心理學─三化取向的理論與實踐。台北:東華。
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