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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 90 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 周怡君(2004)。台灣的政治變化與社會政策的發展-以全民健保與國民年金規劃為例。育達學院學報,7,79-98。
  2. 許振明、周麗芳、何金巡、林建甫(2001)。國民年金與政府財政負擔。台灣經濟預測與政策,31(2),67-90。
  3. 傅立葉(1993)。台灣社會保險的控制本質。台灣社會研究季刊,15,39-64。
  4. 傅從喜(2007)。從轉型國家與開發中國家年金改革經驗論台灣年金體系的建構。台灣社會福利學刊,5(2),31-66。
  5. 曾明發(2001)。國民年金實施策略之比較與評估。藝術學報,68,195-208。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉湘榆(2015)。國民年金與相關社會保險年金化之研究。中原大學財經法律研究所學位論文。2015。1-174。 
  2. 陳星利(2011)。以動態觀點檢視我國政府穩定性之研究。臺灣大學國家發展研究所學位論文。2011。1-144。
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