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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 159 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李枝樺(2009)。臺中縣市國小學童休閒參與、休閒阻礙與休閒滿意度之相關研究。休閒暨觀光產業研究季刊,4(1),13-25。
  2. 林禹良(2003)。基層警察人員休閒阻礙之現況研究。未出版之碩士論文,政治大學行政管理研究所,臺北市。
  3. 邱朋潭(2008)。臺南市警察人員休閒參與與休閒阻礙因素之研究。未出版之碩士論文,國立臺東大學體育教學研究所,臺東。
  4. 馬文煉(2008)。彰化縣基層警察人員休閒參與行為意向之研究。未出版之碩士論文,朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理研究所,臺中市。
  5. 高俊雄(1995)。休閒利益的三因素模式。戶外遊憩研究,8(1),67-78。
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