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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 33 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李佩嬛、黃毅志(2009),影響教師參與學位進修之因果機制-以台東縣國中教師為例,教育與社會研究,第19期,頁1-41。
  2. 張盈霏(2001),我國中等以下學校教師在職進修法令及問題之探討,學校行政雙月刊,第14期,頁100-108。
  3. 楊正德(2010),臺北縣國小教師在職進修動機、教學準備度與教學效能關係之研究,國立臺灣師範大學社會教育學系碩士論文。
  4. 董于震(2010),以淨現值法分析BenQLCDTV進入新市場的經營風險與機會-以土耳其市場為例,國立政治大學經營管理碩士學程碩士論文。
  5. 劉民祐(2013),應用NPV法分析定期壽險與終身壽險之差異,朝陽科技大學財務金融研究所碩士論文。
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