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南非共和國糖業研究

Analysis of the Sugar Industry in the Republic of South Africa

Advisor : 雷立芬
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Abstracts


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Keywords

南非 分析 糖業政策 甘蔗 甜菜 餘熱發電 乙醇 生物燃料 可再生能源 能源

Parallel abstracts


The focus of this study is on the South African sugar industry (its existence based on sugarcane production) which is in need of further adjustment and evolution in order to survive, grow, develop market share, and be competitive on world markets, which remain unique and complex. Alternative options must be investigated to escape an archaic model for value-addition, while shielding the industry in a global market, which is widely recognized as distorted. The South Africa sugar industry has become stagnant, while struggling to keep head above water in the face of erratic droughts, relatively low world sugar prices, cheap sugar imports from mainly Brazil, access to markets with preferential prices denied or extremely limited, land reform and consequent investment uncertainties, infrastructure constraints affecting new market development further up north, drastic increases in minimum wages and other production factors, and a decreasing share in the SACU market, while other African sugar industries are slowly making progress (thus becoming more competitive). World prices for raw sugar remain below average world production costs. Even though South Africa ranks among the top producers in terms of production costs, South African exports (about half of annual production) have to be sold at a loss on these world markets. South African sugar companies are investing outside the country, where most profits are made, due to lower production costs and premium prices earned with exports to the EU. Sugar remains a sensitive product used for political leverage. Between 2000 and 2012, the number of large-scale producers dropped by 20 percent, while the number of small-scale producers declined by 47 percent. The overall area under cane decreased by 13 percent (USDA, 2012). Consensus exists that between 1987 and 2007, the prices of nearly all major agricultural commodities declined in real terms (Grynberg et al, 2007). In light of these challenges, the South Africa sugar industry must forge ahead evaluating alternative options to break away from its dependency on what could be considered an outdated model for value-addition, while protecting the industry. Growing the industry would require more responsive protection in the form of tariffs; market access to higher-priced markets (specifically the EU) but highly unlikely; unlocking value by means of ethanol production (also very unlikely); and cogeneration (more likely). Should regional infrastructural development improve, sugar sales could be viable in new, growing African markets. Should FTAs be signed with African countries, risk of damage to the South African sugar industry would increase, if no special safeguards are in place.

Parallel keywords

South Africa analysis sugar policy sugar sugarcane sugarbeet electricity cogeneration ethanol biofuel renewables energy

References


Afionis, S., 2012. Biofuels, Land Grabbing and Food Security in Africa. Environmental Politics, 21:1, 183-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09644016.2011.643384. Accessed 2014/01/18.
Bezuidenhout, C., & Singels, A., 2007. “Operational Forecasting of South African Sugarcane Production: Part 1 – System Description.” Agricultural Systems, 92(1–3):23-38.
CEC, 2003. Commission Staff Working Paper: Reforming the European Union’s Sugar Policy - Summary of Impact Assessment Work. Commission of the European Communities.
Cheesman, O., 2004. Environmental Impacts of Sugar Production: The Cultivation and Processing of Sugarcane and Sugarbeet. CABI Publishing, UK/USA.
Conforti, P. and Rapsomanikis, G., 2005. The Impact of the European Union Sugar Policy Reform on Developing and Least Developed Countries. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/008/a0334e/a0334e01.pdf. Accessed 2013/11/19.

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