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天臺宗諦閑法師的儒釋道三教觀初探

A Preliminary Study of Master Dixian (Dixian fashi諦閑法師) of the Tiantai School and his Views on the Three Teachings of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism

Abstracts


中國佛教的出家學僧及在家白衣學者,兼治儒道、融通儒釋道自古以來蔚為風氣。清末廟產興學壓力所迫下,佛教界不得不自動辦學,以與當時的政府及知識份子等周旋,而達到守護寺產的目的。在先辦「學」以保寺產的外在前題下,所產生的現代中國佛教教育,凸顯出佛教與世俗教育的複雜關係,即雖以振興佛教為出發點,卻也很難在情感與實際上捨棄所有傳統中國文化。例如1910年,由諦閑法師等主持,以僧伽教育為重心,於南京開辦的僧師範學校,就有儒化的傾向。他後來興辦的觀宗寺佛學教育,在以天臺宗經論為主之外,也兼及《四書》等儒家。諦閑所創辦的天臺宗佛學院不否認儒家文獻,在現實的考量之外,還有佛教內部的基礎。本文便是在上述時代背景脈絡下,次第性地耙梳整理《諦閑大師遺集》中的語錄等文獻,探討這位具有歷史聲譽以及後來影響力的天臺宗高僧,身為專注於教理與修持的法脈傳承人物,為何會關心儒釋道三教思想與關係,而且顯然用的是淺白的弘法、護教方式,卻又維護儒家的傳統價值。

Parallel abstracts


Buddhist monastics and lay practitioners in China have, as common practice, been also administering Confucian and Daoist customs, merging and circulating them with Buddhist customs since ancient times. In the closing years of the Qing, under the compelling pressures of movements to establish schools with temple property (miaochan xingxue 廟產興學), the Buddhist world had no choice but to voluntarily establish their own schools, so as to deal with government and intellectuals of that time and reach the goal of preserving monastery property. The creation of modern Chinese Buddhist education exhibited clearly the complex relationship between Buddhism and secular education. Although this vitalized Buddhism at the outset, it was also difficult to abandon the sentiments and practicality of traditional Chinese culture. For example, in 1910, under the direction of Master Dixian, the Monk Normal School (Seng shifan xuexiao僧師範學校) was opened in Nanjing with monk education as its focal point; however, the school under the direction of Master Dixion also displayed Confucian tendencies. Later, Master Dixian initiated the Buddhist education of Guangrong Monastery (Guangrong Si觀宗寺). Besides giving precedence to Tiantai scriptural discourse, studies there also included Confucian works such as the Four Books and others. The Tiantai School Buddhist Studies Institute (Tiantai zong foxue yuan天臺宗佛學院) established by Dixian did not repudiate Confucius texts, but based their inclusion on practical considerations of internal fundamental principles of Buddhism. This paper, within the context and background of the period discussed above, lays out in orderly fushion the recorded sayings and other pieces within the Inherited Collection of the Great Master Dixian (Dixian dashi yiji諦閑大師遺集). This paper examines this eminent monk of the Tiantai School, of such historical prestige and future influence, who, in his capacity as Dharma lineage transmitter, concentrated on both doctrinal principles and cultivation practices. It explores why Dixian was concerned with the thought of Confucianism, Buddhism, Daoism and their relationship. He clearly employed such simple means of carrying forward and protecting Buddhist teachings, but also, uphold the traditional value of Confucianism.

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